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Notch-1 Signaling Modulates Macrophage Polarization and Immune Defense against Mycobacterium avium paratuberculosis Infection in Inflammatory Diseases
Review

Paratuberculosis: A Potential Zoonosis and a Neglected Disease in Africa

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College of Veterinary Medicine, Animal Resources and Biosecurity (COVAB), Makerere University, P. O. Box 7062 Kampala, Uganda
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Division of Microbiology and Animal Hygiene, University of Goettingen, D-37077 Goettingen, Germany
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Unit of Animal Health and Safety of Animal Products, Institute for Studies and Promotion of Animal Exports, University of Khartoum, 13314 Shambat, Khartoum North, Sudan
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Faculty of Medicine, Alneelain University/Ibn Sina Specialised Hospital Khartoum, 11112 Khartoum, Sudan
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Department of Gastroenterology and Gastrointestinal Oncology, University Medical Centre Goettingen, D-37075 Goettingen, Germany
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School of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Department of Animal Science and Management, University of Eldoret, P. O. Box 1125-30100 Eldoret, Kenya
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Institute of Animal Hygiene and Veterinary Public Health, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
RIP.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(7), 1007; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071007
Received: 17 June 2020 / Revised: 29 June 2020 / Accepted: 2 July 2020 / Published: 5 July 2020
The Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is the causative agent of paratuberculosis, which is an economically important disease of ruminants. The zoonotic role of MAP in Crohn’s disease and, to a lesser extent, in ulcerative colitis, the two major forms of idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease (IIBD), has been debated for decades and evidence continues to mount in support of that hypothesis. The aim of this paper is to present a review of the current information on paratuberculosis in animals and the two major forms of IIBD in Africa. The occurrence, epidemiology, economic significance and “control of MAP and its involvement IIBD in Africa” are discussed. Although the occurrence of MAP is worldwide and has been documented in several African countries, the epidemiology and socioeconomic impacts remain undetermined and limited research information is available from the continent. At present, there are still significant knowledge gaps in all these areas as far as Africa is concerned. Due to the limited research on paratuberculosis in Africa, in spite of growing global concerns, it may rightfully be considered a neglected tropical disease with a potentially zoonotic role. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis; paratuberculosis; idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease; Africa Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis; paratuberculosis; idiopathic inflammatory bowel disease; Africa
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MDPI and ACS Style

Okuni, J.B.; Hansen, S.; Eltom, K.H.; Eltayeb, E.; Amanzada, A.; Omega, J.A.; Czerny, C.P.; Abd El Wahed, A.; Ojok, L. Paratuberculosis: A Potential Zoonosis and a Neglected Disease in Africa. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1007. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071007

AMA Style

Okuni JB, Hansen S, Eltom KH, Eltayeb E, Amanzada A, Omega JA, Czerny CP, Abd El Wahed A, Ojok L. Paratuberculosis: A Potential Zoonosis and a Neglected Disease in Africa. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(7):1007. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071007

Chicago/Turabian Style

Okuni, Julius B., Sören Hansen, Kamal H. Eltom, ElSagad Eltayeb, Ahmad Amanzada, Joseph A. Omega, Claus P. Czerny, Ahmed Abd El Wahed, and Lonzy Ojok. 2020. "Paratuberculosis: A Potential Zoonosis and a Neglected Disease in Africa" Microorganisms 8, no. 7: 1007. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8071007

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