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The Role of the Microbiota–Gut–Brain Axis and Antibiotics in ALS and Neurodegenerative Diseases

1
Research Service, Louis Stokes Cleveland, Department of Veteran’s Affairs Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
2
Departments of Chemistry, Biochemistry, Pathology and Molecular Biology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
3
The Gilgamesh Foundation for Medical Science and Research, Cleveland, OH 44116, USA
4
Department of Medicinal and Biological Chemistry, College of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 43606, USA
5
Cleveland State University Departments of Chemistry and Engineering, Cleveland, OH 44115, USA
6
Department of Laboratory Medicine, Metro Health Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44109, USA
7
Department of Biology University of Texas San Antonio, San Antonio, TX 78249, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(5), 784; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050784 (registering DOI)
Received: 30 April 2020 / Accepted: 14 May 2020 / Published: 23 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbiota-Gut-Brain Axis)
The human gut hosts a wide and diverse ecosystem of microorganisms termed the microbiota, which line the walls of the digestive tract and colon where they co-metabolize digestible and indigestible food to contribute a plethora of biochemical compounds with diverse biological functions. The influence gut microbes have on neurological processes is largely yet unexplored. However, recent data regarding the so-called leaky gut, leaky brain syndrome suggests a potential link between the gut microbiota, inflammation and host co-metabolism that may affect neuropathology both locally and distally from sites where microorganisms are found. The focus of this manuscript is to draw connection between the microbiota–gut–brain (MGB) axis, antibiotics and the use of “BUGS AS DRUGS” for neurodegenerative diseases, their treatment, diagnoses and management and to compare the effect of current and past pharmaceuticals and antibiotics for alternative mechanisms of action for brain and neuronal disorders, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), mood disorders, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorders and others. It is a paradigm shift to suggest these diseases can be largely affected by unknown aspects of the microbiota. Therefore, a future exists for applying microbial, chemobiotic and chemotherapeutic approaches to enhance translational and personalized medical outcomes. Microbial modifying applications, such as CRISPR technology and recombinant DNA technology, among others, echo a theme in shifting paradigms, which involve the gut microbiota (GM) and mycobiota and will lead to potential gut-driven treatments for refractory neurologic diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; ALS; chemobiotics; probiotics; symbiotics; neurodegeneration; Alzheimer disease; AD; holobiota; holobiome; microbiota; microbiome; microbiota–gut–brain axis; ceftriaxone amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; ALS; chemobiotics; probiotics; symbiotics; neurodegeneration; Alzheimer disease; AD; holobiota; holobiome; microbiota; microbiome; microbiota–gut–brain axis; ceftriaxone
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Obrenovich, M.; Jaworski, H.; Tadimalla, T.; Mistry, A.; Sykes, L.; Perry, G.; Bonomo, R.A. The Role of the Microbiota–Gut–Brain Axis and Antibiotics in ALS and Neurodegenerative Diseases. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 784.

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