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Open AccessArticle

Metagenomic- and Cultivation-Based Exploration of Anaerobic Chloroform Biotransformation in Hypersaline Sediments as Natural Source of Chloromethanes

1
Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University & Research, 6708 WE Wageningen, The Netherlands
2
College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082, China
3
Key Laboratory of Environmental Biology and Pollution Control, Hunan University, Ministry of Education, Changsha 410082, China
4
Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research-UFZ, Department of Isotope Biogeochemistry, 04318 Leipzig, Germany
5
Laboratory of Systems and Synthetic Biology, Wageningen University & Research, 6708 WE Wageningen, The Netherlands
6
Department of Biogeochemical Processes, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, 07745 Jena, Germany
7
Geomicrobiology, Centre for Applied Geosciences, University of Tuebingen, 72076 Tuebingen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Present address: Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(5), 665; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050665
Received: 17 March 2020 / Revised: 22 April 2020 / Accepted: 29 April 2020 / Published: 2 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial One-Carbon Metabolism of Natural and Engineered Systems)
Chloroform (CF) is an environmental contaminant that can be naturally formed in various environments ranging from forest soils to salt lakes. Here we investigated CF removal potential in sediments obtained from hypersaline lakes in Western Australia. Reductive dechlorination of CF to dichloromethane (DCM) was observed in enrichment cultures derived from sediments of Lake Strawbridge, which has been reported as a natural source of CF. No CF removal was observed in abiotic control cultures without artificial electron donors, indicating biotic CF dechlorination in the enrichment cultures. Increasing vitamin B12 concentration from 0.04 to 4 µM in enrichment cultures enhanced CF removal and reduced DCM formation. In cultures amended with 4 µM vitamin B12 and 13C labelled CF, formation of 13CO2 was detected. Known organohalide-respiring bacteria and reductive dehalogenase genes were neither detected using quantitative PCR nor metagenomic analysis of the enrichment cultures. Rather, members of the order Clostridiales, known to co-metabolically transform CF to DCM and CO2, were detected. Accordingly, metagenome-assembled genomes of Clostridiales encoded enzymatic repertoires for the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and cobalamin biosynthesis, which are known to be involved in fortuitous and nonspecific CF transformation. This study indicates that hypersaline lake microbiomes may act as a filter to reduce CF emission to the atmosphere. View Full-Text
Keywords: hypersaline lakes; chloroform; biotransformation; metagenome hypersaline lakes; chloroform; biotransformation; metagenome
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MDPI and ACS Style

Peng, P.; Lu, Y.; Bosma, T.N.P.; Nijenhuis, I.; Nijsse, B.; Shetty, S.A.; Ruecker, A.; Umanets, A.; Ramiro-Garcia, J.; Kappler, A.; Sipkema, D.; Smidt, H.; Atashgahi, S. Metagenomic- and Cultivation-Based Exploration of Anaerobic Chloroform Biotransformation in Hypersaline Sediments as Natural Source of Chloromethanes. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 665. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050665

AMA Style

Peng P, Lu Y, Bosma TNP, Nijenhuis I, Nijsse B, Shetty SA, Ruecker A, Umanets A, Ramiro-Garcia J, Kappler A, Sipkema D, Smidt H, Atashgahi S. Metagenomic- and Cultivation-Based Exploration of Anaerobic Chloroform Biotransformation in Hypersaline Sediments as Natural Source of Chloromethanes. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(5):665. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050665

Chicago/Turabian Style

Peng, Peng; Lu, Yue; Bosma, Tom N.P.; Nijenhuis, Ivonne; Nijsse, Bart; Shetty, Sudarshan A.; Ruecker, Alexander; Umanets, Alexander; Ramiro-Garcia, Javier; Kappler, Andreas; Sipkema, Detmer; Smidt, Hauke; Atashgahi, Siavash. 2020. "Metagenomic- and Cultivation-Based Exploration of Anaerobic Chloroform Biotransformation in Hypersaline Sediments as Natural Source of Chloromethanes" Microorganisms 8, no. 5: 665. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8050665

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