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Open AccessArticle

Indoor Microbiome: Quantification of Exposure and Association with Geographical Location, Meteorological Factors, and Land Use in France

1
Department of Parasitology and Mycology, University Hospital, 25030 Besançon CEDEX, France
2
Chrono-Environnement Research Team UMR/CNRS-6249, Bourgogne-Franche-Comté University, 25000 Besançon, France
3
INED French Institute for Demographic Studies, ELFE Joint Unit Campus Condorcet 9, 93322 Aubervilliers CEDEX, France
4
INSERM Bordeaux Population Health Research Center U1219, Bordeaux University, 33076 Bordeaux, France
5
Inserm U1168, VIMA Aging and Chronic Disease, 94809 Villejuif, France
6
UMR S 1168, Versailles Saint Quentin University, 78180 Montigny le Bretonneux, France
7
Department of Pneumology, University Hospital, 33000 Bordeaux, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(3), 341; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8030341
Received: 12 February 2020 / Accepted: 25 February 2020 / Published: 28 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Microbiology)
The indoor microbial community is a mixture of microorganisms resulting from outdoor ecosystems that seed the built environment. However, the biogeography of the indoor microbial community is still inadequately studied. Dust from more than 3000 dwellings across France was analyzed by qPCR using 17 targets: 10 molds, 3 bacteria groups, and 4 mites. Thus, the first spatial description of the main indoor microbial allergens on the French territory, in relation with biogeographical factors influencing the distribution of microorganisms, was realized in this study. Ten microorganisms out of 17 exhibited increasing abundance profiles across the country: Five microorganisms (Dermatophagoïdes pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoïdes spp., Streptomyces spp., Cladosporium sphaerospermum, Epicoccum nigrum) from northeast to southwest, two (Cryptococcus spp., Alternaria alternata) from northwest to southeast, Mycobacteria from east to west, Aspergillus fumigatus from south to north, and Penicillium chrysogenum from south to northeast. These geographical patterns were partly linked to climate and land cover. Multivariate analysis showed that composition of communities seemed to depend on landscapes, with species related to closed and rather cold and humid landscapes (forests, located in the northeast) and others to more open, hot, and dry landscapes (herbaceous and coastal regions, located in the west). This study highlights the importance of geographical location and outdoor factors that shape communities. In order to study the effect of microorganisms on human health (allergic diseases in particular), it is important to identify biogeographic factors that structure microbial communities on large spatial scales and to quantify the exposure with quantitative tools, such as the multi-qPCR approach. View Full-Text
Keywords: indoor exposure; molds; bacteria; dust mites; qPCR; electrostatic dust collector indoor exposure; molds; bacteria; dust mites; qPCR; electrostatic dust collector
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Rocchi, S.; Reboux, G.; Scherer, E.; Laboissière, A.; Zaros, C.; Rouzet, A.; Valot, B.; Khan, S.; Dufourg, M.-N.; Leynaert, B.; Raherison, C.; Millon, L. Indoor Microbiome: Quantification of Exposure and Association with Geographical Location, Meteorological Factors, and Land Use in France. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 341.

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