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Article

Pesticides Decrease Bacterial Diversity and Abundance of Irrigated Rice Fields

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Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality Management Group, Wageningen University, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Ghana Environmental Protection Agency, P.O. Box, Accra M326, Ghana
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Center for Infectious Diseases, Human Genetics, and Environmental Sciences, Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center, Houston, TX 77030, USA
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Wageningen Environmental Research, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands
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Department of Environmental Science, College of Science, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi PMB University Post Office, Kumasi 400800, Ghana
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MD Anderson Cancer Center UTHealth Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases Program, Houston, TX 77030, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(3), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8030318
Received: 8 February 2020 / Revised: 22 February 2020 / Accepted: 22 February 2020 / Published: 25 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Microbiology)
Bacteria play an important role in soil ecosystems and their activities are crucial in nutrient composition and recycling. Pesticides are extensively used in agriculture to control pests and improve yield. However, increased use of pesticides on agricultural lands results in soil contamination, which could have adverse effect on its bacterial communities. Here, we investigated the effect of pesticides commonly used on irrigated rice fields on bacterial abundance and diversity. Irrigated soil samples collected from unexposed, pesticide-exposed, and residual exposure areas were cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. DNA was extracted and analysed by 16S rRNA sequencing. The results showed overall decrease in bacterial abundance and diversity in areas exposed to pesticides. Operational taxonomic units of the genera Enterobacter, Aeromonas, Comamonas, Stenotrophomonas, Bordetella, and Staphylococcus decreased in areas exposed to pesticides. Conversely, Domibacillus, Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Bacillus increased in abundance in pesticide-exposed areas. Simpson and Shannon diversity indices and canonical correspondence analysis demonstrated a decrease in bacterial diversity and composition in areas exposed to pesticides. These results suggest bacteria genera unaffected by pesticides that could be further evaluated to identify species for bioremediation. Moreover, there is a need for alternative ways of improving agricultural productivity and to educate farmers to adopt innovative integrated pest management strategies to reduce deleterious impacts of pesticides on soil ecosystems. View Full-Text
Keywords: pesticides; soil microbiota and diversity; irrigated fields; soil bacteria; pesticides and bacteria pesticides; soil microbiota and diversity; irrigated fields; soil bacteria; pesticides and bacteria
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MDPI and ACS Style

Onwona-Kwakye, M.; Plants-Paris, K.; Keita, K.; Lee, J.; Brink, P.J.V.d.; Hogarh, J.N.; Darkoh, C. Pesticides Decrease Bacterial Diversity and Abundance of Irrigated Rice Fields. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 318. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8030318

AMA Style

Onwona-Kwakye M, Plants-Paris K, Keita K, Lee J, Brink PJVd, Hogarh JN, Darkoh C. Pesticides Decrease Bacterial Diversity and Abundance of Irrigated Rice Fields. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(3):318. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8030318

Chicago/Turabian Style

Onwona-Kwakye, Michael, Kimberly Plants-Paris, Kadiatou Keita, Jessica Lee, Paul J.V.d. Brink, Jonathan N. Hogarh, and Charles Darkoh. 2020. "Pesticides Decrease Bacterial Diversity and Abundance of Irrigated Rice Fields" Microorganisms 8, no. 3: 318. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8030318

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