Proteomic and Transcriptional Profiles of Human Stem Cell-Derived β Cells Following Enteroviral Challenge
Department of Microbiology and Molecular Cell Biology and Leroy T. Canoles Jr. Cancer Research Center, Eastern Virginia Medical School, Norfolk, VA 23501, USA
Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
Department of Bioinformatics and Integrative Biology, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01655, USA
Department of Medicine and Pharmacology, New York Medical College, Valhalla, NY 10595, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this paper.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(2), 295; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8020295
Received: 9 January 2020 / Revised: 14 February 2020 / Accepted: 18 February 2020 / Published: 20 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enterovirus and Type 1 Diabetes)
Enteroviral infections are implicated in islet autoimmunity and type 1 diabetes (T1D) pathogenesis. Significant β-cell stress and damage occur with viral infection, leading to cells that are dysfunctional and vulnerable to destruction. Human stem cell-derived β (SC-β) cells are insulin-producing cell clusters that closely resemble native β cells. To better understand the events precipitated by enteroviral infection of β cells, we investigated transcriptional and proteomic changes in SC-β cells challenged with coxsackie B virus (CVB). We confirmed infection by demonstrating that viral protein colocalized with insulin-positive SC-β cells by immunostaining. Transcriptome analysis showed a decrease in insulin gene expression following infection, and combined transcriptional and proteomic analysis revealed activation of innate immune pathways, including type I interferon (IFN), IFN-stimulated genes, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and downstream inflammatory cytokines, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I. Finally, insulin release by CVB4-infected SC-β cells was impaired. These transcriptional, proteomic, and functional findings are in agreement with responses in primary human islets infected with CVB ex vivo. Human SC-β cells may serve as a surrogate for primary human islets in virus-induced diabetes models. Because human SC-β cells are more genetically tractable and accessible than primary islets, they may provide a preferred platform for investigating T1D pathogenesis and developing new treatments.