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Open AccessArticle

Duration of Prebiotic Intake Is a Key-Factor for Diet-Induced Modulation of Immunity and Fecal Fermentation Products in Dogs

1
Pet Nutrology Research Center, Nutrition and Animal Production Department, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science (FMVZ), University of São Paulo (USP), Pirassununga, SP 13635-900, Brazil
2
Nutritional Development Center, Grandfood Industry and Commerce LTD (Premier Pet), Dourado, SP 13590-000, Brazil
3
Veterinary Nutrology Service, Teaching Veterinary Hospital, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science (FMVZ), University of São Paulo (USP), São Paulo, SP 05508-010, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(12), 1916; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121916
Received: 11 September 2020 / Revised: 13 October 2020 / Accepted: 16 October 2020 / Published: 2 December 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Gut Microbiota)
Prebiotics promote health benefits, however, there is no consensus on the minimal intake period required in order to obtain good results. This study evaluated the effect of the time of ingestion of prebiotics on fecal fermentation products and immunological features in dogs. Twenty-four adult dogs were randomly distributed in a block design with six groups and four treatments. Diet and intake period were variation factors. Diets were either a control diet without the addition of prebiotic (CO) or with the inclusion of 1% of a commercial product containing a minimum of 0.38% galactooligosaccharides (GOS), 0.5% (B1) or 1% (B2) of a prebiotic blend. Time variable was set at 30 and 60 days for evaluation of immunity and gut health. Results were analyzed in the Statistical Analysis System software (SAS), version 9.4, considering the repeated measures over time design, and means were compared by the Tukey test and p < 0.05 was significant. Propionic acid was the only variable that had an interaction effect, with reduction of this metabolite in treatment B2 in the period of 60 days. At T60, concentrations of immunoglobulin A, lactic acid, and pH in the feces increased (p < 0.05) in all treatments regardless of prebiotic inclusion or not. GOS increased fecal score and lactic acid concentrations. Therefore, a 60-day intake period of a prebiotic blend was not sufficient to modulate fecal and immune variables and higher concentrations of a single prebiotic would be more relevant for results. View Full-Text
Keywords: nutrient; gut health; immunity; prebiotics nutrient; gut health; immunity; prebiotics
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MDPI and ACS Style

Perini, M.P.; Rentas, M.F.; Pedreira, R.; Amaral, A.R.; Zafalon, R.V.A.; Rodrigues, R.B.A.; Henríquez, L.B.F.; Zanini, L.; Vendramini, T.H.A.; Balieiro, J.C.C.; Pontieri, C.F.F.; Brunetto, M.A. Duration of Prebiotic Intake Is a Key-Factor for Diet-Induced Modulation of Immunity and Fecal Fermentation Products in Dogs. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1916. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121916

AMA Style

Perini MP, Rentas MF, Pedreira R, Amaral AR, Zafalon RVA, Rodrigues RBA, Henríquez LBF, Zanini L, Vendramini THA, Balieiro JCC, Pontieri CFF, Brunetto MA. Duration of Prebiotic Intake Is a Key-Factor for Diet-Induced Modulation of Immunity and Fecal Fermentation Products in Dogs. Microorganisms. 2020; 8(12):1916. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121916

Chicago/Turabian Style

Perini, Mariana P.; Rentas, Mariana F.; Pedreira, Raquel; Amaral, Andressa R.; Zafalon, Rafael V.A.; Rodrigues, Roberta B.A.; Henríquez, Lucas B.F.; Zanini, Lucca; Vendramini, Thiago H.A.; Balieiro, Júlio C.C.; Pontieri, Cristiana F.F.; Brunetto, Marcio A. 2020. "Duration of Prebiotic Intake Is a Key-Factor for Diet-Induced Modulation of Immunity and Fecal Fermentation Products in Dogs" Microorganisms 8, no. 12: 1916. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8121916

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