Next Article in Journal
Microbial Origin of Aquaponic Water Suppressiveness against Pythium aphanidermatum Lettuce Root Rot Disease
Previous Article in Journal
Why the Anti-Meningococcal B Vaccination during Adolescence Should Be Implemented in Italy: An Overview of Available Evidence
Open AccessReview

Defining Coral Bleaching as a Microbial Dysbiosis within the Coral Holobiont

1
Institut de Biologie Intégrative et des Systèmes (IBIS), Université Laval, Québec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
2
California Academy of Sciences, 55 Music Concourse Drive, San Francisco, CA 94118, USA
3
PSL Research University: EPHE-UPVD-CNRS, USR 3278 CRIOBE, Université de Perpignan, 66860 Perpignan CEDEX, France
4
Laboratoire d’Excellence “CORAIL”, 98729 Papetoai, Moorea, French Polynesia
5
Département de Biologie, Faculté des Sciences et de Génie, Université Laval, Québec City, QC G1V 0A6, Canada
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2020, 8(11), 1682; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8111682
Received: 5 October 2020 / Revised: 26 October 2020 / Accepted: 28 October 2020 / Published: 29 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Microbiology)
Coral microbiomes are critical to holobiont health and functioning, but the stability of host–microbial interactions is fragile, easily shifting from eubiosis to dysbiosis. The heat-induced breakdown of the symbiosis between the host and its dinoflagellate algae (that is, “bleaching”), is one of the most devastating outcomes for reef ecosystems. Yet, bleaching tolerance has been observed in some coral species. This review provides an overview of the holobiont’s diversity, explores coral thermal tolerance in relation to their associated microorganisms, discusses the hypothesis of adaptive dysbiosis as a mechanism of environmental adaptation, mentions potential solutions to mitigate bleaching, and suggests new research avenues. More specifically, we define coral bleaching as the succession of three holobiont stages, where the microbiota can (i) maintain essential functions for holobiont homeostasis during stress and/or (ii) act as a buffer to mitigate bleaching by favoring the recruitment of thermally tolerant Symbiodiniaceae species (adaptive dysbiosis), and where (iii) environmental stressors exceed the buffering capacity of both microbial and dinoflagellate partners leading to coral death. View Full-Text
Keywords: adaptive dysbiosis hypothesis; coral bleaching; holobiont; microbiota; Symbiodiniaceae adaptive dysbiosis hypothesis; coral bleaching; holobiont; microbiota; Symbiodiniaceae
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Boilard, A.; Dubé, C.E.; Gruet, C.; Mercière, A.; Hernandez-Agreda, A.; Derome, N. Defining Coral Bleaching as a Microbial Dysbiosis within the Coral Holobiont. Microorganisms 2020, 8, 1682.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Search more from Scilit
 
Search
Back to TopTop