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Open AccessArticle

Evaluation of Physiological Effects Induced by Manuka Honey Upon Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

1
Department of Food Hygiene and Technology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of León, Campus de Vegazana, 24071 León, Spain
2
Mountain Research Center (CIMO), Polytechnic Institute of Bragança, Campus Santa Apolónia, 5301-855 Bragança, Portugal
3
Division of Microbiology, Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
4
Center for Research in Health Technologies and Information Systems (CINTESIS), Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal
5
Burn Unit, Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Hospital São João, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(8), 258; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7080258
Received: 17 July 2019 / Revised: 8 August 2019 / Accepted: 9 August 2019 / Published: 13 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Recent Advances in Applied Microbiology)
Several studies have explored the antimicrobial properties of manuka honey (MkH). However, the data available regarding antibacterial action mechanisms are scarcer. The aim of this study was to scrutinize and characterize primary effects of manuka honey (MkH) upon the physiological status of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli (as Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria models, respectively), using flow cytometry (FC) to reveal its antibacterial action mechanisms. Effects of MkH on membrane potential, membrane integrity and metabolic activity were assessed using different fluorochromes in a 180 min time course assay. Time-kill experiments were carried out under the same conditions. Additionally, MkH effect on efflux pumps was also studied in an E. coli strain with an over-expression of several efflux pumps. Exposure of bacteria to MkH resulted in physiological changes related to membrane potential and membrane integrity; these effects displayed slight differences among bacteria. MkH induced a remarkable metabolic disruption as primary physiological effect upon S. aureus and was able to block efflux pump activity in a dose-dependent fashion in the E. coli strain. View Full-Text
Keywords: manuka honey; flow cytometry; antibacterial effects; bacteria models; metabolic activity; efflux pump manuka honey; flow cytometry; antibacterial effects; bacteria models; metabolic activity; efflux pump
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MDPI and ACS Style

Combarros-Fuertes, P.; Estevinho, L.M.; Teixeira-Santos, R.; Rodrigues, A.G.; Pina-Vaz, C.; Fresno, J.M.; Tornadijo, M.E. Evaluation of Physiological Effects Induced by Manuka Honey Upon Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 258.

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