Polyketides are a large group of secondary metabolites that have notable variety in their structure and function. Polyketides exhibit a wide range of bioactivities such as antibacterial, antifungal, anticancer, antiviral, immune-suppressing, anti-cholesterol, and anti-inflammatory activity. Naturally, they are found in bacteria, fungi, plants, protists, insects, mollusks, and sponges. Streptomyces
is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria that has a filamentous form like fungi. This genus is best known as one of the polyketides producers. Some examples of polyketides produced by Streptomyces
are rapamycin, oleandomycin, actinorhodin, daunorubicin, and caprazamycin. Biosynthesis of polyketides involves a group of enzyme activities called polyketide synthases (PKSs). There are three types of PKSs (type I, type II, and type III) in Streptomyces
responsible for producing polyketides. This paper focuses on the biosynthesis of polyketides in Streptomyces
with three structurally-different types of PKSs.
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