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The Influence of Fungicide Treatments on Mycobiota of Grapes and Its Evolution During Fermentation Evaluated by Metagenomic and Culture-Dependent Methods

1
Department of Life and Environmental Sciences, Polytechnic University of Marche, Via Brecce Bianche, 60121 Ancona, Italy
2
Laboratory of Probiogenomics, Department of Genetics, Biology of Microorganisms, Anthropology and Evolution, University of Parma, 43100 Parma, Italy
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(5), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7050114
Received: 1 April 2019 / Revised: 20 April 2019 / Accepted: 24 April 2019 / Published: 26 April 2019
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Abstract

The present study evaluated the impact of organic and conventional fungicide treatments compared with untreated samples (no fungicides were used) on the grape berry yeast community of the Montepulciano variety. The yeast dynamics during the spontaneous fermentation using culture-dependent and -independent methods was also evaluated. Results showed a reduction of yeast biodiversity by conventional treatments determining a negative influence on fermenting yeasts in favor of oxidative yeasts such as Aerobasidium pullulans. Starmerella bacillaris was significantly more present in organic samples (detected by next generation sequencing (NGS)), while Hanseniaspopa uvarum was significantly less present in untreated samples (detected by the culture-dependent method). The fermenting yeasts, developed during the spontaneous fermentation, were differently present depending on the fungicide treatments used. Culture-dependent and -independent methods exhibited the same most abundant yeast species during the spontaneous fermentation but a different relative abundance. Differently, the NGS method was able to detect a greater biodiversity (lower abundant species) in comparison with the culture-dependent method. In this regard, the methodologies used gave a different picture of yeast dynamics during the fermentation process. The results indicated that the fungal treatments can influence the yeast community of grapes leading must fermentation and the final composition of wine. View Full-Text
Keywords: mycobiota of grapes; organic treatment; conventional treatment; Next Generation Sequencing; culture-dependent method mycobiota of grapes; organic treatment; conventional treatment; Next Generation Sequencing; culture-dependent method
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Agarbati, A.; Canonico, L.; Mancabelli, L.; Milani, C.; Ventura, M.; Ciani, M.; Comitini, F. The Influence of Fungicide Treatments on Mycobiota of Grapes and Its Evolution During Fermentation Evaluated by Metagenomic and Culture-Dependent Methods. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 114.

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