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Open AccessArticle

Changes in the Bacterioplankton Community Structure from Southern Gulf of Mexico During a Simulated Crude Oil Spill at Mesocosm Scale

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Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mérida, Yucatán 97310, Mexico
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Consorcio de Investigación del Golfo de México (CIGoM)—Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mérida, Yucatán 97310, Mexico
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Laboratorio de Biodiversidad Marina y Cambio Climático, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Lerma Campeche, Campeche 24500, Mexico
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CONACYT – Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Mérida, Yucatán 97310, Mexico
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Microorganisms 2019, 7(10), 441; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms7100441
Received: 15 August 2019 / Revised: 28 September 2019 / Accepted: 10 October 2019 / Published: 11 October 2019
The southern Gulf of Mexico (sGoM) is highly susceptible to receiving environmental impacts due to the recent increase in oil-related activities. In this study, we assessed the changes in the bacterioplankton community structure caused by a simulated oil spill at mesocosms scale. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis indicated that the initial bacterial community was mainly represented by Gamma-proteobacteria, Alpha-proteobacteria, Flavobacteriia, and Cyanobacteria. The hydrocarbon degradation activity, measured as the number of culturable hydrocarbonoclastic bacteria (CHB) and by the copy number of the alkB gene, was relatively low at the beginning of the experiment. However, after four days, the hydrocarbonoclastic activity reached its maximum values and was accompanied by increases in the relative abundance of the well-known hydrocarbonoclastic Alteromonas. At the end of the experiment, the diversity was restored to similar values as those observed in the initial time, although the community structure and composition were clearly different, where Marivita, Pseudohongiella, and Oleibacter were detected to have differential abundances on days eight–14. These changes were related with total nitrogen (p value = 0.030 and r2 = 0.22) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (p value = 0.048 and r2 = 0.25), according to PERMANOVA. The results of this study contribute to the understanding of the potential response of the bacterioplankton from sGoM to crude oil spills. View Full-Text
Keywords: light crude oil; bacterioplankton; southern Gulf of Mexico; 16S rRNA; mesocosm experiment light crude oil; bacterioplankton; southern Gulf of Mexico; 16S rRNA; mesocosm experiment
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Valencia-Agami, S.S.; Cerqueda-García, D.; Putzeys, S.; Uribe-Flores, M.M.; García-Cruz, N.U.; Pech, D.; Herrera-Silveira, J.; Aguirre-Macedo, M.L.; García-Maldonado, J.Q. Changes in the Bacterioplankton Community Structure from Southern Gulf of Mexico During a Simulated Crude Oil Spill at Mesocosm Scale. Microorganisms 2019, 7, 441.

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