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Microorganisms 2017, 5(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms5040080

Bioactive Compounds Produced by Hypoxylon fragiforme against Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms

1
Chemical Microbiology, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), Inhoffenstraße 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany
2
Microbial Drugs, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research (HZI), Inhoffenstraße 7, 38124 Braunschweig, Germany
3
Department of Exact Sciences, Escola Superior de Agricultura “Luiz de Queiroz” (ESALQ), Piracicaba, SP 13418-900, Brazil
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 November 2017 / Revised: 3 December 2017 / Accepted: 9 December 2017 / Published: 12 December 2017
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Abstract

Treating infections organized in biofilms is a challenge due to the resistance of the pathogens against antibiotics and host immune cells. Many fungi grow in a wet environment, favorable for the growth of bacterial biofilms, and we speculated that fungi possess some strategies to control these bacterial biofilms. A fungus identified as Hypoxylon fragiforme, was collected in the Harz Mountains, Germany, and its mycelial culture was fermented in different culture media for 67 days to test its biological potential against bacterial biofilms. Sclerin, sclerin diacid and its 3-methyl monoester (methyl 1-(5-hydroxy-6-carboxylic-2,3,4-trimethylphenyl) propionate) are here described for the first time from this fungus. Sclerin and its diacid interfered with the biofilm formation of the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, inhibiting 86% and 80% of the biofilm at 256 μg mL−1, respectively, but not killing the bacterium. Interestingly, the monomethylester of sclerin diacid was inactive. Although these compounds did not possess any activity against a pre-formed biofilm, they prevented its formation at subtoxic concentrations. Furthermore, sclerin and its diacid displayed a high specificity against Staphylococcus aureus, indicating a good strategy against pathogenic biofilms when combined with antibiotics. View Full-Text
Keywords: biofilm dispersion; Staphylococcus aureus; Hypoxylon fragiforme; secondary metabolites biofilm dispersion; Staphylococcus aureus; Hypoxylon fragiforme; secondary metabolites
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Yuyama, K.T.; Chepkirui, C.; Wendt, L.; Fortkamp, D.; Stadler, M.; Abraham, W.-R. Bioactive Compounds Produced by Hypoxylon fragiforme against Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms. Microorganisms 2017, 5, 80.

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