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The Food Production Environment and the Development of Antimicrobial Resistance in Human Pathogens of Animal Origin

QC Laboratory, Harvest and Post Harvest Technology Department, ICAR-Central Institute of Fisheries Education (CIFE), Seven Bungalows, Versova, Andheri (W), Mumbai 400061, India
CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography (NIO), Regional Centre, Dr. Salim Ali Road, Kochi 682018, India
Department of Biology, Eastern New Mexico University, Portales, NM 88130, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Comi
Microorganisms 2017, 5(1), 11;
Received: 12 January 2017 / Revised: 7 March 2017 / Accepted: 9 March 2017 / Published: 14 March 2017
PDF [525 KB, uploaded 15 March 2017]


Food-borne pathogens are a serious human health concern worldwide, and the emergence of antibiotic-resistant food pathogens has further confounded this problem. Once-highly-efficacious antibiotics are gradually becoming ineffective against many important pathogens, resulting in severe treatment crises. Among several reasons for the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance, their overuse in animal food production systems for purposes other than treatment of infections is prominent. Many pathogens of animals are zoonotic, and therefore any development of resistance in pathogens associated with food animals can spread to humans through the food chain. Human infections by antibiotic-resistant pathogens such as Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus are increasing. Considering the human health risk due to emerging antibiotic resistance in food animal–associated bacteria, many countries have banned the use of antibiotic growth promoters and the application in animals of antibiotics critically important in human medicine. Concerted global efforts are necessary to minimize the use of antimicrobials in food animals in order to control the development of antibiotic resistance in these systems and their spread to humans via food and water. View Full-Text
Keywords: antibiotic; growth promoter; pathogen; resistance; zoonosis antibiotic; growth promoter; pathogen; resistance; zoonosis

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Lekshmi, M.; Ammini, P.; Kumar, S.; Varela, M.F. The Food Production Environment and the Development of Antimicrobial Resistance in Human Pathogens of Animal Origin. Microorganisms 2017, 5, 11.

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