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Open AccessArticle

Cold-Active, Heterotrophic Bacteria from the Highly Oligotrophic Waters of Lake Vanda, Antarctica

Division of Natural Sciences, Indiana Wesleyan University, 4201 South Washington St., Marion, IN 46953-4974, USA
Department of Biology, MidAmerica Nazarene University, 2030 E. College Way, Olathe, KS 66062, USA
Department of Microbiology, Southern Illinois University, 1125 Lincoln Dr., Carbondale, IL 62901, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Present addresses: Van Andel Research Institute, Grand Rapids, MI 49503, USA.
Present addresses: Department of General Surgery, University of Arizona Medical Center, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA.
Present addresses: Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University, Dayton, OH 45435, USA.
Present addresses: Graduate Physician Assistant Program, Trevecca Nazarene University, Nashville, TN 37210, USA.
Academic Editors: Ricardo Amils and Elena González Toril
Microorganisms 2015, 3(3), 391-406;
Received: 12 June 2015 / Revised: 5 July 2015 / Accepted: 9 July 2015 / Published: 24 July 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Extremophiles)
The permanently ice-covered lakes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are distinctive ecosystems that consist strictly of microbial communities. In this study, water samples were collected from Lake Vanda, a stratified Dry Valley lake whose upper waters (from just below the ice cover to nearly 60 m) are highly oligotrophic, and used to establish enrichment cultures. Six strains of psychrotolerant, heterotrophic bacteria were isolated from lake water samples from a depth of 50 or 55 m. Phylogenetic analyses showed the Lake Vanda strains to be species of Nocardiaceae, Caulobacteraceae, Sphingomonadaceae, and Bradyrhizobiaceae. All Lake Vanda strains grew at temperatures near or below 0 °C, but optimal growth occurred from 18 to 24 °C. Some strains showed significant halotolerance, but no strains required NaCl for growth. The isolates described herein include cold-active species not previously reported from Dry Valley lakes, and their physiological and phylogenetic characterization broadens our understanding of these limnologically unique lakes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Antarctica; Lake Vanda; McMurdo Dry Valleys; psychrotolerant; halotolerant Antarctica; Lake Vanda; McMurdo Dry Valleys; psychrotolerant; halotolerant
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Vander Schaaf, N.A.; Cunningham, A.M.G.; Cluff, B.P.; Kraemer, C.K.; Reeves, C.L.; Riester, C.J.; Slater, L.K.; Madigan, M.T.; Sattley, W.M. Cold-Active, Heterotrophic Bacteria from the Highly Oligotrophic Waters of Lake Vanda, Antarctica. Microorganisms 2015, 3, 391-406.

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