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Article

Physiologic, Genomic, and Electrochemical Characterization of Two Heterotrophic Marine Sediment Microbes from the Idiomarina Genus

1
Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221, USA
2
Department of Ecology, Evolution and Marine Biology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Hermann J. Heipieper
Microorganisms 2022, 10(6), 1219; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10061219
Received: 22 May 2022 / Revised: 8 June 2022 / Accepted: 9 June 2022 / Published: 14 June 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Electrogenic Microbes)
Extracellular electron transfer (EET), the process that allows microbes to exchange electrons in a redox capacity with solid interfaces such as minerals or electrodes, has been predominantly described in microbes that use iron during respiration. In this work, we characterize the physiology, genome, and electrochemical properties of two obligately heterotrophic marine microbes that were previously isolated from marine sediment cathode enrichments. Phylogenetic analysis of isolate 16S rRNA genes showed two strains, SN11 and FeN1, belonging to the genus Idiomarina. Strain SN11 was found to be nearly identical to I. loihiensis L2-TRT, and strain FeN1 was most closely related to I. maritima 908087T. Each strain had a relatively small genome (~2.8–2.9 MB). Phenotypic similarities among FeN1, SN11, and the studied strains include being Gram-negative, motile, catalase- and oxidase-positive, and rod-shaped. Physiologically, all strains appeared to exclusively use amino acids as a primary carbon source for growth. This was consistent with genomic observations. Each strain contained 17 to 22 proteins with heme-binding motifs. None of these were predicted to be extracellular, although seven were of unknown localization and lacked functional annotation beyond cytochrome. Despite the lack of homology to known EET pathways, both FeN1 and SN11 were capable of sustained electron uptake over time in an electrochemical system linked to respiration. Given the association of these Idiomarina strains with electro-active biofilms in the environment and their lack of autotrophic capabilities, we predict that EET is used exclusively for respiration in these microbes. View Full-Text
Keywords: electromicrobiology; mineral oxidation; chemolithoheterotrophy; marine; microbiology; sediment microbiology electromicrobiology; mineral oxidation; chemolithoheterotrophy; marine; microbiology; sediment microbiology
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Figure 1

  • Externally hosted supplementary file 1
    Doi: 10.5281/zenodo.6567748
    Description: Idiomarina strain S11 on ITO plated glass electrodes stained with a lipid stain (FMTM 4-64FX) and provided RedoxSensorTM Green (RSG). Video show back-to-back fixed location on the electrode with loose attachment of cells in clumpy biofilms. Each frame taken at 5 min intervals. As indicated in the video, voltage at the electrode is decreased from -400 mV vs. Ag/AgCl to a -600 mV Ag/AgCl, which qualitatively corresponds to an increase in RSG fluorescence, though this could not be accurately quantified given the shifting focal plane.
MDPI and ACS Style

Vinales, J.; Sackett, J.; Trutschel, L.; Amir, W.; Norman, C.; Leach, E.; Wilbanks, E.; Rowe, A. Physiologic, Genomic, and Electrochemical Characterization of Two Heterotrophic Marine Sediment Microbes from the Idiomarina Genus. Microorganisms 2022, 10, 1219. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10061219

AMA Style

Vinales J, Sackett J, Trutschel L, Amir W, Norman C, Leach E, Wilbanks E, Rowe A. Physiologic, Genomic, and Electrochemical Characterization of Two Heterotrophic Marine Sediment Microbes from the Idiomarina Genus. Microorganisms. 2022; 10(6):1219. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10061219

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vinales, Jorge, Joshua Sackett, Leah Trutschel, Waleed Amir, Casey Norman, Edmund Leach, Elizabeth Wilbanks, and Annette Rowe. 2022. "Physiologic, Genomic, and Electrochemical Characterization of Two Heterotrophic Marine Sediment Microbes from the Idiomarina Genus" Microorganisms 10, no. 6: 1219. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10061219

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