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Article

Long-Term Analysis of Resilience of the Oral Microbiome in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients

1
Department of Oral Medicine, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1081 LA Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Preventive Dentistry, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1081 LA Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3
Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, 1081 LA Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Department of Oral Medicine, Atrium Health Carolinas Medical Centre, Charlotte, NC 28209, USA
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Department of Otolaryngology/Head and Neck Surgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27101, USA
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Department of Oral Microbiology and Immunology, Institute of Odontology, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, 413 90 Gothenburg, Sweden
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Department of Dentistry, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, 6525 EX Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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Department of Hematology, Radboud Institute for Health Sciences, Radboud University Medical Center, 6525 GA Nijmegen, The Netherlands
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Department of Hematology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, 1081 LA Amsterdam, The Netherlands
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Hannah Wardill and Joanne M. Bowen
Microorganisms 2022, 10(4), 734; https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10040734
Received: 1 February 2022 / Revised: 24 March 2022 / Accepted: 25 March 2022 / Published: 29 March 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Regulation of Cancer Treatment and Response)
Stem cell transplantation (SCT) is associated with oral microbial dysbiosis. However, long-term longitudinal data are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to longitudinally assess the oral microbiome in SCT patients and to determine if changes are associated with oral mucositis and oral chronic graft-versus-host disease. Fifty allogeneic SCT recipients treated in two Dutch university hospitals were prospectively followed, starting at pre-SCT, weekly during hospitalization, and at 3, 6, 12, and 18 months after SCT. Oral rinsing samples were taken, and oral mucositis (WHO score) and oral chronic graft-versus-host disease (NIH score) were assessed. The oral microbiome diversity (Shannon index) and composition significantly changed after SCT and returned to pre-treatment levels from 3 months after SCT. Oral mucositis was associated with a more pronounced decrease in microbial diversity and with several disease-associated genera, such as Mycobacterium, Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus. On the other hand, microbiome diversity and composition were not associated with oral chronic graft-versus-host disease. To conclude, dysbiosis of the oral microbiome occurred directly after SCT but recovered after 3 months. Diversity and composition were related to oral mucositis but not to oral chronic graft-versus-host disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: allogeneic stem cell transplant; oral microbiome; dysbiosis; oral graft-versus-host disease; oral mucositis; conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplant; oral microbiome; dysbiosis; oral graft-versus-host disease; oral mucositis; conditioning
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MDPI and ACS Style

Laheij, A.M.G.A.; Rozema, F.R.; Brennan, M.T.; von Bültzingslöwen, I.; van Leeuwen, S.J.M.; Potting, C.; Huysmans, M.-C.D.N.J.M.; Hazenberg, M.D.; Brandt, B.W.; Zaura, E.; Buijs, M.J.; de Soet, J.J.; Blijlevens, N.N.M.; Raber-Durlacher, J.E. Long-Term Analysis of Resilience of the Oral Microbiome in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients. Microorganisms 2022, 10, 734. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10040734

AMA Style

Laheij AMGA, Rozema FR, Brennan MT, von Bültzingslöwen I, van Leeuwen SJM, Potting C, Huysmans M-CDNJM, Hazenberg MD, Brandt BW, Zaura E, Buijs MJ, de Soet JJ, Blijlevens NNM, Raber-Durlacher JE. Long-Term Analysis of Resilience of the Oral Microbiome in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients. Microorganisms. 2022; 10(4):734. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10040734

Chicago/Turabian Style

Laheij, Alexa M. G. A., Frederik R. Rozema, Michael T. Brennan, Inger von Bültzingslöwen, Stephanie J. M. van Leeuwen, Carin Potting, Marie-Charlotte D. N. J. M. Huysmans, Mette D. Hazenberg, Bernd W. Brandt, Egija Zaura, Mark J. Buijs, Johannes J. de Soet, Nicole N. M. Blijlevens, and Judith E. Raber-Durlacher. 2022. "Long-Term Analysis of Resilience of the Oral Microbiome in Allogeneic Stem Cell Transplant Recipients" Microorganisms 10, no. 4: 734. https://doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms10040734

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