Twisted and coiled polymer (TCP) can generate large stroke and output high power density, making it a promising artificial muscle. Thermally induced muscles fabricated from nylon or other polymer fibers can be used in robotic, biomedical devices, and energy-harvesting equipment. While fibers with different shapes and materials have different optimal process parameters. Understanding mechanisms of TCP forming and the impact of process parameters is critical to explore stronger, more powerful artificial muscles. In this paper, an elastic-rod-theory-based model was established for capturing the quantitative relationship between tensile actuation and fabrication load. Further experimental results agree with model calculation and TCP muscles used in our research reaches maximum stroke of 52.6%, strain up to 9.8 MPa, and power density of 211.89 J/kg.
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