Next Article in Journal
Stability and Performance Analysis of Electrodynamic Thrust Bearings
Previous Article in Journal
Conductive Fabric Heaters for Heat-Activated Soft Actuators
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview

A Review on the Control of the Mechanical Properties of Ankle Foot Orthosis for Gait Assistance

1
Advanced Vehicle System Laboratory, Malaysia-Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur 54100, Malaysia
2
Electrical Engineering Department, Institut Teknologi Telkom Surabaya, Surabaya 60234, Indonesia
3
Vocational School, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jogjakarta 55281, Indonesia
4
Mechanical Engineering Department, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Surakarta 57126, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Actuators 2019, 8(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/act8010010
Received: 20 December 2018 / Revised: 9 January 2019 / Accepted: 24 January 2019 / Published: 28 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Low-Profile Compliant Actuators for Wearable Devices)
  |  
PDF [2940 KB, uploaded 28 January 2019]
  |     |  

Abstract

In the past decade, advanced technologies in robotics have been explored to enhance the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients. Previous works have shown that gait assistance for post-stroke patients can be provided through the use of robotics technology in ancillary equipment, such as Ankle Foot Orthosis (AFO). An AFO is usually used to assist patients with spasticity or foot drop problems. There are several types of AFOs, depending on the flexibility of the joint, such as rigid, flexible rigid, and articulated AFOs. A rigid AFO has a fixed joint, and a flexible rigid AFO has a more flexible joint, while the articulated AFO has a freely rotating ankle joint, where the mechanical properties of the AFO are more controllable compared to the other two types of AFOs. This paper reviews the control of the mechanical properties of existing AFOs for gait assistance in post-stroke patients. Several aspects that affect the control of the mechanical properties of an AFO, such as the controller input, number of gait phases, controller output reference, and controller performance evaluation are discussed and compared. Thus, this paper will be of interest to AFO researchers or developers who would like to design their own AFOs with the most suitable mechanical properties based on their application. The controller input and the number of gait phases are discussed first. Then, the discussion moves forward to the methods of estimating the controller output reference, which is the main focus of this study. Based on the estimation method, the gait control strategies can be classified into subject-oriented estimations and phase-oriented estimations. Finally, suggestions for future studies are addressed, one of which is the application of the adaptive controller output reference to maximize the benefits of the AFO to users. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ankle-Foot Orthosis; gait control; gait assistance; bending stiffness; damping stiffness; assistive torque; motion path; non-linear; walking; mechanical properties Ankle-Foot Orthosis; gait control; gait assistance; bending stiffness; damping stiffness; assistive torque; motion path; non-linear; walking; mechanical properties
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Adiputra, D.; Nazmi, N.; Bahiuddin, I.; Ubaidillah, U.; Imaduddin, F.; Abdul Rahman, M.A.; Mazlan, S.A.; Zamzuri, H. A Review on the Control of the Mechanical Properties of Ankle Foot Orthosis for Gait Assistance. Actuators 2019, 8, 10.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Actuators EISSN 2076-0825 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top