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Genetic Diversity and Sequence Polymorphism of Two Genes Encoding Theileria parva Antigens Recognized by CD8+ T Cells among Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Cattle in Malawi

1
Laboratory of Parasitology, Graduate School of Infectious Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Hokkaido University, Kita-18, Nishi-9, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0818, Japan
2
Department of Veterinary Medicine, Lilongwe University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, P.O. Box 219 Lilongwe, Malawi
3
Division of Collaboration and Education, Research Centre for Zoonosis Control, Hokkaido University, Kita-20, Nishi-10, Sapporo, Hokkaido 001-0020, Japan
4
Department of Biomedical Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Zambia, P.O. Box 32379 Lusaka, Zambia
5
Department of Animal Medicine, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, South Valley University, Qena City 83523, Egypt
6
Department of Parasitology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Khartoum, P.O. Box 32 Khartoum North, Sudan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(5), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050334
Received: 25 March 2020 / Revised: 24 April 2020 / Accepted: 26 April 2020 / Published: 30 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Pathogens)
East Coast fever (ECF) is an acute fatal tick-borne disease of cattle caused by Theileria parva. It causes major losses in exotic and crossbreed cattle, but this could be prevented by a vaccine of T. parva if the vaccine is selected properly based on information from molecular epidemiology studies. The Muguga cocktail (MC) vaccine (Muguga, Kiambu 5 and Serengeti-transformed strains) has been used on exotic and crossbreed cattle. A total of 254 T. parva samples from vaccinated and unvaccinated cattle were used to understand the genetic diversity of T. parva in Malawi using partial sequences of the Tp1 and Tp2 genes encoding T. parva CD8+ antigens, known to be immunodominant and current candidate antigens for a subunit vaccine. Single nucleotide polymorphisms were observed at 14 positions (3.65%) in Tp1 and 156 positions (33.12%) in Tp2, plus short deletions in Tp1, resulting in 6 and 10 amino acid variants in the Tp1 and Tp2 genes, respectively. Most sequences were either identical or similar to T. parva Muguga and Kiambu 5 strains. This may suggest the possible expansion of vaccine components into unvaccinated cattle, or that a very similar genotype already existed in Malawi. This study provides information that support the use of MC to control ECF in Malawi. View Full-Text
Keywords: Malawi; Theileria parva; genetic diversity; vaccine; Muguga cocktail Malawi; Theileria parva; genetic diversity; vaccine; Muguga cocktail
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Chatanga, E.; Hayashida, K.; Muleya, W.; Kusakisako, K.; Moustafa, M.A.M.; Salim, B.; Katakura, K.; Sugimoto, C.; Nonaka, N.; Nakao, R. Genetic Diversity and Sequence Polymorphism of Two Genes Encoding Theileria parva Antigens Recognized by CD8+ T Cells among Vaccinated and Unvaccinated Cattle in Malawi. Pathogens 2020, 9, 334.

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