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Sustainable and Ecofriendly Approach of Managing Soil Born Bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) Using Dried Powder of Conyza canadensis

1
School of Life Science and Engineering, Southwest University of Science and Technology, Mianyang 621010, Sichuan, China
2
Institute of Vegetables and Flowers, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing 100081, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(5), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050327
Received: 31 March 2020 / Revised: 19 April 2020 / Accepted: 24 April 2020 / Published: 27 April 2020
Bacterial wilt disease caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is a devastating plant disease that inflicts heavy losses to the large number of economic host plants it infects. The potential of dried powder of the Conyza canadensis to control bacterial wilt (BW) of tomato was explored in vitro and in planta. Three application times (16 days before transplanting (DBT), 8 DBT and 0 DBT), three plastic-mulch durations (10 days plastic mulching (DPM), 5DPM and 0DPM) and four doses viz. 0 g, 8 g, 16 g and 24 g of the plant powder were evaluated. SEM analysis was also conducted to observe the change in bacterial cell morphology. Ethanol extract of dried C. canadensis in different concentrations inhibited the in vitro growth of R. solanacearum by as much as 98% of that produced by ampicillin. As evident from the scanning electron micrograph, the highest concentration produced severe morphologic changes, such as rupture of the bacterial cell walls and cell contents leaked out. Results from application time and dose experiment demonstrated that the highest powder dose viz. 24 g kg−1 mixed with infested soil 16 DBT gave maximum root length (34.0 ± 2.5 cm), plant height (74.3 ± 4.7 cm), fresh biomass (58.3 ± 4.3 g), reduction in bacterial population (1.52 log10) and resulted in lowest AUDPC value (1156.6). In case of mulching duration and dose experiment the maximum root length (39.6 ± 3.2 cm), plant height (78.3 ± 5.8 cm), fresh biomass (65.6 ± 4.9 g) reduction in bacterial population (1.59 log10) and lowest AUDPC value (1251.6) was achieved through the application of highest powder dose viz. 24 g kg−1 and longest plastic mulching duration of 10 DPM. The better results of highest dose and longer application time can be explained on the basis of higher amounts of anti-microbial plant bio-active compounds in highest dose and the longer exposure time of the pathogen to these chemicals. The better results of longer mulching duration are due to faster and more complete decomposition (because of 10-days-long plastic-mulch-provided increased solar heat) of the dried powder which produced more amounts of volatile and non-volatile bactericidal compounds. Our results clearly suggest that the use of 24 g kg−1 dried plant powder of C. canadensis plastic-mulched for two weeks could be used as a reliable component of the integrated disease management program against BW. View Full-Text
Keywords: environment friendly; IDM; soil amendment; phytopathogenic bacteria; bacterial wilt environment friendly; IDM; soil amendment; phytopathogenic bacteria; bacterial wilt
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Chen, K.; Khan, R.A.A.; Cao, W.; Ling, M. Sustainable and Ecofriendly Approach of Managing Soil Born Bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith) Using Dried Powder of Conyza canadensis. Pathogens 2020, 9, 327.

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