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Transcriptional Alteration of Gene Biomarkers in Hemocytes of Wild Ostrea edulis with Molecular Evidence of Infections with Bonamia spp. and/or Marteilia refringens Parasites

School of Biosciences and Veterinary Medicine, University of Camerino, Via Gentile III Da Varano, I-62032 Camerino (MC), Italy
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Pathogens 2020, 9(5), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9050323
Received: 20 February 2020 / Revised: 20 April 2020 / Accepted: 24 April 2020 / Published: 26 April 2020
The European flat Ostrea edulis is highly susceptible to intracellular parasitic infections, particularly bonamiosis and marteiliosis. The defensive response of oyster to both bonamiosis and marteiliosis is typically mediated by hemocytes, which play a pivotal role in immune system homeostasis. In the present study, we first used a DNA-based tool in order to rapidly and specifically detect the presence of parasites in oysters from natural banks in the middle Adriatic Sea. In a second step, we used qRT-PCR to analyze the mRNA levels of a set of genes (i.e., superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), metallothionein (MT), heat shock protein (HSP) 70 and 90, inhibitor of apoptosis (IAP), fas ligand (FAS), galectin (GAL) and extracellular superoxide dismutase (Ec-SOD)) expressed by hemocytes of flat oysters infected by the parasites, present singularly or in combination, compared to hemocytes from non-infected specimens. The results indicate that the presence of parasite DNA may be associated to a general upregulation of host genes related to apoptosis, detoxification and oxidative stress protection, with the exception of Ec-SOD, whose trend to a downregulation might reflect a mechanism for parasite escape before internalization. View Full-Text
Keywords: flat oyster; molecular analysis; Bonamia ostreae; Marteilia refringens; hemocyte; biomarkers; qRT-PCR; gene expression flat oyster; molecular analysis; Bonamia ostreae; Marteilia refringens; hemocyte; biomarkers; qRT-PCR; gene expression
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Cocci, P.; Roncarati, A.; Capriotti, M.; Mosconi, G.; Palermo, F.A. Transcriptional Alteration of Gene Biomarkers in Hemocytes of Wild Ostrea edulis with Molecular Evidence of Infections with Bonamia spp. and/or Marteilia refringens Parasites. Pathogens 2020, 9, 323.

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