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Open AccessCase Report

Salmonella Typhimurium Triggered Unilateral Epididymo-Orchitis and Splenomegaly in a Holstein Bull in Assiut, Egypt: A Case Report

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Department of Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, 71526 Assiut, Egypt
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Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, 71526 Assiut, Egypt
3
Department of Pathology and Clinical Pathology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sohag, University, 82524 Sohag, Egypt
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Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, New Valley University, 72511 Al-Kharga, Egypt
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Department of Anatomy, Embryology and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, 71526 Assiut, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(4), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9040314
Received: 15 February 2020 / Revised: 18 April 2020 / Accepted: 20 April 2020 / Published: 24 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Animal Pathogens)
This report illustrates, for the first time, a case of unilateral orchitis and epididymitis in a Holstein-Friesian bull, associated with Salmonella enterica infection (Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium). A one and a half-year-old Holstein-Friesian bull had arrived at the Veterinary Hospital of Assiut University suffering from anorexia accompanied with persistent fever, which did not respond to oxytetracycline and flunixin meglumine injection for 15 days. Gross examination revealed left scrotal enlargement (three times its normal size), heat sensation, and induration of the testis and epididymis, which was painful on external palpation. Microbiological and pathological examinations of the left testicle, epididymis, and spleen samples were performed. S. Typhimurium was recovered from the affected tissues and its critical virulence genes (stn, avrA and sopB) were identified. Pathological examination revealed a unilateral necrotizing intratubular pyogranulomatus orchitis and epididymitis with severe peri-orchitis. In addition, splenomegaly with a firm and large whitish nodular capsular structure associated with different stages of granulomatous reaction around the white and red pulp. To the authors’ knowledge, this report is the first isolation of S. Typhimurium from the epididymis and testicles of a Holstein-Friesian bull. These results highlight the importance of including S. Typhimurium among the health disorders associated with stressful situations in bovine with orchitis and or/epididymitis. In Egypt, Salmonella spp. infection as being enzootic with high probability of dissemination should be considered one of genital health problems among cattle farms. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella Typhimurium sequencing; Salmonella virulence genes (stn, avrA and sopB); VITEK identification; necrotizing intratubular pyogranulomatus orchitis and epididymitis Salmonella Typhimurium sequencing; Salmonella virulence genes (stn, avrA and sopB); VITEK identification; necrotizing intratubular pyogranulomatus orchitis and epididymitis
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Mahmoud, M.A.M.; Megahed, G.; Yousef, M.S.; Ali, F.A.Z.; Zaki, R.S.; Abdelhafeez, H.H. Salmonella Typhimurium Triggered Unilateral Epididymo-Orchitis and Splenomegaly in a Holstein Bull in Assiut, Egypt: A Case Report. Pathogens 2020, 9, 314.

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