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Open AccessArticle

Protective Effects of Evening Primrose Oil against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Biochemical, Histopathological, and Genotoxic Alterations in Mice

1
Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
2
Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
3
Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo 11566, Egypt
4
Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02215, USA
5
Department of Zoology, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
6
Pharmacology Department, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522, Egypt
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(2), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9020098 (registering DOI)
Received: 13 January 2020 / Revised: 25 January 2020 / Accepted: 3 February 2020 / Published: 5 February 2020
Cyclophosphamide (CP) is a well-known antineoplastic agent; however, its clinical use can be associated with various organ toxicities. Evening primrose oil (EPO) contains several phytoconstituents with potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This experimental study was performed to investigate the chemoprotective effects of EPO in the liver and pancreas of CP-intoxicated mice. Thirty-two albino mice were randomly divided into 4 equal groups: group I received saline (control mice), group II were treated with CP at 100 mg/kg/day for two subsequent days, and groups III and VI were treated with 5 and 10 mg/kg/day bw EPO, respectively for 14 days, followed by two doses of CP at the 15th and 16th days of the experiment. Then, mice were sacrificed and histopathological examinations, biochemical studies, and DNA laddering tests were conducted for hepatic and pancreatic tissues. Cyclophosphamide-intoxicated mice showed significant increases (p < 0.05) in the serum levels of liver enzymes, pancreatic amylase and tissue levels of malondialdehyde, and TNF-α, as well as a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in the serum insulin level. In addition, both hepatic and pancreatic tissues showed disturbed tissue architecture, hydropic degeneration, congested vessels, and inflammatory infiltrates, as well as increased DNA fragmentation. In a dose-dependent manner, pretreatment with EPO was associated with significant improvements (p < 0.05) in all biochemical parameters and significant amelioration of histopathological alterations and DNA fragmentation in CP-intoxicated mice. Pretreatment with EPO showed significant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and genoprotective effects against the toxic effects of CP in mice hepatic and pancreatic tissues. View Full-Text
Keywords: cyclophosphamide; evening primrose oil; insulin; liver; pancreas; mice cyclophosphamide; evening primrose oil; insulin; liver; pancreas; mice
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Khodeer, D.M.; Mehanna, E.T.; Abushouk, A.I.; Abdel-Daim, M.M. Protective Effects of Evening Primrose Oil against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Biochemical, Histopathological, and Genotoxic Alterations in Mice. Pathogens 2020, 9, 98.

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