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Antifungal and Antivirulence Activities of Hydroalcoholic Extract and Fractions of Platonia insignis Leaves against Vaginal Isolates of Candida Species

1
Laboratório de Imunofisiologia, Programa de Doutorado em Biotecnologia—RENORBIO, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, 65085-580 São Luís, Ma, Brazil
2
Laboratório de Química de Produtos Naturais, Centro de Ciências Exatas e Tecnológicas, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, 65085-580 São Luís, Ma, Brazil
3
Laboratório de Imunologia das Doenças Infecciosas e Parasitárias, Programa de Mestrado em Biologia Microbiana, Universidade Ceuma, 65075-120 São Luís, Ma, Brazil
4
Departamento de Ensino, Instituto Federal do Maranhão, 65485-000 Itapecuru-Mirim, Ma, Brazil
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Laboratório de Microbiologia Aplicada, Programa de Biologia Microbiana, Universidade Ceuma, 65075-120 São Luís, Ma, Brazil
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Laboratório de Microbiologia Aplicada, Curso de Especialização em Microbiologia Clínica, Universidade Ceuma, 65075-120 São Luís, Ma, Brazil
7
Departamento de Biologia, Instituto Federal do Maranhão, 65030-005 São Luís, Ma, Brazil
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Pathogens 2020, 9(2), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9020084
Received: 23 December 2019 / Revised: 12 January 2020 / Accepted: 16 January 2020 / Published: 28 January 2020
Vulvovaginal candidiasis is a common fungal infection in women. In this study, Platonia insignis hydroalcoholic extract (PiHE) and its fractions were evaluated for antifungal and antivirulence activities against vaginal Candida species. Dichloromethane (DCMF) and ethyl acetate fractions (EAF) obtained from PiHE effectively inhibited the pathogen. Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry was used for identifying the main compounds in extracts. Minimal inhibitory and fungicidal concentrations (MIC and MFC, respectively) were determined by a broth microdilution assay. Furthermore, we evaluated the effect of the extract and fractions on the virulence properties of Candida albicans, and their cytotoxicity effect was determined on RAW 264.7 cells. Compounds found in extracts were flavonoid glycosides, mainly derivatives of quercetin and myricetin. Extracts showed antifungal potential, with the lowest MIC value for EAF (1.3 mg/mL) and inhibited Candida adherence and biofilm formation. EAF disrupted 48 h biofilms with an inhibition rate of more than 90%. The extract and its fractions exhibited no cytotoxicity. The antifungal effects were attributed to the ability of these extracts to alter the mitochondrial membrane potential for the release of pro-apoptotic factors in the cytosol. In conclusion, our data suggest that PiHE and EAF could act as novel candidates for the development of new therapeutic treatments against fungal infections. View Full-Text
Keywords: Candida albicans; Candida glabrata; vulvovaginal candidiasis; Platonia insignis; biofilm; antifungals Candida albicans; Candida glabrata; vulvovaginal candidiasis; Platonia insignis; biofilm; antifungals
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da Silva, A.F.; da Rocha, C.Q.; da Silva, L.C.N.; Carvalho Júnior, A.R.; Mendes, I.N.F.V.; de Araruna, A.B.; Motta, E.P.; Silva, R.S.; Campos, C.D.L.; Farias, J.R.; Oliveira, A.S.; Silva, D.H.S.; Nascimento, F.R.F.; Guerra, R.N.M.; Monteiro, C.A. Antifungal and Antivirulence Activities of Hydroalcoholic Extract and Fractions of Platonia insignis Leaves against Vaginal Isolates of Candida Species. Pathogens 2020, 9, 84.

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