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Open AccessArticle

Faecal Indicator Bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Marine Coastal Waters: Is there a Relationship?

MARE – Marine and Environmental Sciences Centre, ESTM, Politécnico de Leiria, 2520-630 Peniche, Portugal
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Pathogens 2020, 9(1), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9010013
Received: 19 November 2019 / Revised: 6 December 2019 / Accepted: 18 December 2019 / Published: 21 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Waterborne/Foodborne/Airborne Pathogens)
To estimate the quality of coastal waters, European Union Directive 2006/7/EC provides guidelines to assess levels of faecal bacteria, including Escherichia coli and intestinal enterococci. These microbiological criteria are based on studies that determine the risk of bathers having diseases caused by enteric bacteria, not necessarily measuring the potential danger associated with the presence of nonenteric pathogens. The association between the presence of faecal contaminant indicators and nonenteric pathogenic microorganisms has not been well defined yet. The purpose of this study is to establish a relationship between Pseudomonas aeruginosa and microbiological indicators of faecal contamination. Presence of microbiological contamination in the coastal waters near the sewage treatment plant (STP) of Peniche (Portugal) was confirmed (P. aeruginosa 135.8 Colony Forming Unit/100 mL, Escherichia coli 1100.1 Most Probable Number/100 mL, intestinal enterococci 2685.9 MPN/100 mL) with much lower levels in the areas located south of the STP, along the main water coastal current (beach 1: 0.7 CFU/100 mL, 16.5 MPN/100 mL, 100.5 MPN/100 mL; beach 2: 0.3 CFU/100 mL, 74.0 MPN/100 mL, 145.9 MPN/100 mL, respectively). Analysis of Pearson’s correlation revealed a strong positive correlation between E. coli and P. aeruginosa, suggesting E. coli as an indicator of P. aeruginosa presence. View Full-Text
Keywords: water quality; bathing waters; faecal contaminant indicators; Pseudomonas aeruginosa water quality; bathing waters; faecal contaminant indicators; Pseudomonas aeruginosa
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MDPI and ACS Style

Januário, A.P.; Afonso, C.N.; Mendes, S.; Rodrigues, M.J. Faecal Indicator Bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Marine Coastal Waters: Is there a Relationship? Pathogens 2020, 9, 13. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9010013

AMA Style

Januário AP, Afonso CN, Mendes S, Rodrigues MJ. Faecal Indicator Bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Marine Coastal Waters: Is there a Relationship? Pathogens. 2020; 9(1):13. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9010013

Chicago/Turabian Style

Januário, Adriana P.; Afonso, Clélia N.; Mendes, Susana; Rodrigues, Maria J. 2020. "Faecal Indicator Bacteria and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Marine Coastal Waters: Is there a Relationship?" Pathogens 9, no. 1: 13. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens9010013

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