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The Prevalence and Impact of Coinfection and Superinfection on the Severity and Outcome of COVID-19 Infection: An Updated Literature Review
Systematic Review

Heterogeneity and Risk of Bias in Studies Examining Risk Factors for Severe Illness and Death in COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Department of Epidemiology, College of Public Health, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198, USA
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Lawrence S. Young
Pathogens 2022, 11(5), 563; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11050563
Received: 3 April 2022 / Revised: 2 May 2022 / Accepted: 5 May 2022 / Published: 10 May 2022
(This article belongs to the Collection SARS-CoV Infections)
This systematic review and meta-analysis synthesized the evidence on the impacts of demographics and comorbidities on the clinical outcomes of COVID-19, as well as the sources of the heterogeneity and publication bias of the relevant studies. Two authors independently searched the literature from PubMed, Embase, Cochrane library, and CINAHL on 18 May 2021; removed duplicates; screened the titles, abstracts, and full texts by using criteria; and extracted data from the eligible articles. The variations among the studies were examined by using Cochrane, Q.; I2, and meta-regression. Out of 11,975 articles that were obtained from the databases and screened, 559 studies were abstracted, and then, where appropriate, were analyzed by meta-analysis (n = 542). COVID-19-related severe illness, admission to the ICU, and death were significantly correlated with comorbidities, male sex, and an age older than 60 or 65 years, although high heterogeneity was present in the pooled estimates. The study design, the study country, the sample size, and the year of publication contributed to this. There was publication bias among the studies that compared the odds of COVID-19-related deaths, severe illness, and admission to the ICU on the basis of the comorbidity status. While an older age and chronic diseases were shown to increase the risk of developing severe illness, admission to the ICU, and death among the COVID-19 patients in our analysis, a marked heterogeneity was present when linking the specific risks with the outcomes. View Full-Text
Keywords: COVID-19; severe illness; death; demographics; comorbidities COVID-19; severe illness; death; demographics; comorbidities
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MDPI and ACS Style

Degarege, A.; Naveed, Z.; Kabayundo, J.; Brett-Major, D. Heterogeneity and Risk of Bias in Studies Examining Risk Factors for Severe Illness and Death in COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Pathogens 2022, 11, 563. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11050563

AMA Style

Degarege A, Naveed Z, Kabayundo J, Brett-Major D. Heterogeneity and Risk of Bias in Studies Examining Risk Factors for Severe Illness and Death in COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Pathogens. 2022; 11(5):563. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11050563

Chicago/Turabian Style

Degarege, Abraham, Zaeema Naveed, Josiane Kabayundo, and David Brett-Major. 2022. "Heterogeneity and Risk of Bias in Studies Examining Risk Factors for Severe Illness and Death in COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Pathogens 11, no. 5: 563. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11050563

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