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Article

Characterization of Salmonella enterica Contamination in Pork and Poultry Meat from São Paulo/Brazil: Serotypes, Genotypes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles

1
Department of Preventive Veterinary Medicine and Animal Health, School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science, University of São Paulo, Av. Prof. Dr. Orlando Marques de Paiva, 87, São Paulo 05508-270, Brazil
2
Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC 27606, USA
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Department of Pathology and Infectious Diseases, School of Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7AL, UK
4
Quadram Institute Bioscience, Norwich NR4 7UQ, UK
5
Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Marialaura Corrente
Pathogens 2022, 11(3), 358; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11030358
Received: 2 February 2022 / Revised: 10 March 2022 / Accepted: 14 March 2022 / Published: 16 March 2022
Salmonellosis is a zoonosis of major relevance to global public health. Here we present the assessment of Salmonella enterica contamination in pork and poultry meat sold at retail markets in São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 780 meat samples (386 poultry meat and 394 pork samples) were collected from 132 markets. From these, 57 samples (7.3%) were positive for S. enterica isolation, including 32 (8.3%) poultry meat and 25 (6.3%) pork samples. S. enterica isolates were further characterized for serotyping, antimicrobial resistance and genotyping by amplified fragment length polymorphism and pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Antimicrobial resistance analysis demonstrated two main profiles: pork isolates were more resistant to macrolides, β-lactams, tetracycline, phenicols, and fluoroquinolones, and poultry meat isolates presented higher resistance to fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, tetracycline, and β-lactams. A total of 72.4% of poultry meat isolates were identified as S. Heidelberg, while most of pork isolates were S. Typhimurium (31.7%) and S. Give (16.7%). Genotyping resulted in most clusters consisting exclusively of pork or poultry meat, no cross-contamination was detected, and a tendency to differentiate isolates according to their serotypes and markets of origin. High resistance rates to critically important antimicrobials reinforce the importance of controlling Salmonella contamination in meat production chains. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella enterica; pork; poultry; serotype; antimicrobial resistance; PFGE Salmonella enterica; pork; poultry; serotype; antimicrobial resistance; PFGE
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gomes, V.T.M.; Moreno, L.Z.; Silva, A.P.S.; Thakur, S.; La Ragione, R.M.; Mather, A.E.; Moreno, A.M. Characterization of Salmonella enterica Contamination in Pork and Poultry Meat from São Paulo/Brazil: Serotypes, Genotypes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles. Pathogens 2022, 11, 358. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11030358

AMA Style

Gomes VTM, Moreno LZ, Silva APS, Thakur S, La Ragione RM, Mather AE, Moreno AM. Characterization of Salmonella enterica Contamination in Pork and Poultry Meat from São Paulo/Brazil: Serotypes, Genotypes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles. Pathogens. 2022; 11(3):358. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11030358

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gomes, Vasco T.M., Luisa Z. Moreno, Ana P.S. Silva, Siddhartha Thakur, Roberto M. La Ragione, Alison E. Mather, and Andrea M. Moreno. 2022. "Characterization of Salmonella enterica Contamination in Pork and Poultry Meat from São Paulo/Brazil: Serotypes, Genotypes and Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles" Pathogens 11, no. 3: 358. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens11030358

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