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Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodidae Tick around Asia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

The Institute for Tropical Medicine, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650500, China
Third Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University (Yunnan Cancer Hospital), Kunming 650100, China
Yunnan Province Key Laboratory of Children’s Major Diseases Research, The Affiliated Children Hospital, Kunming Medical University, Kunming 650030, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Belkis Corona-González, Dasiel Obregon, Adrian A. Díaz-Sánchez, Huarrisson Azevedo Santos and José A. Oteo
Pathogens 2022, 11(2), 143;
Received: 19 November 2021 / Revised: 31 December 2021 / Accepted: 4 January 2022 / Published: 24 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in the Epidemiological Surveillance of Tick-Borne Pathogens)
Lyme disease (LD) is a common arthropod-borne inflammatory disorder prevalent in the northern hemisphere. LD is caused by a spirochete named Borrelia burgdorferi s.l., which is transmitted to humans by ticks. Climate, environment, and other factors affect land use; recreational-behavior changes affect human contact with infected ticks. Studies in Europe and North America have looked at these aspects, but studies in Asia have not. We searched databases to identify all relevant abstracts published until March 2021. A meta-analysis was undertaken using the standard methods and procedures established by the Cochrane Collaboration. Ninety-one articles were included in our meta-analysis. The literature search identified data from nine countries (China, Japan, Malaysia, Mongolia, Pakistan, Russia Siberia region, South Korea, Thailand and Turkey). Furthermore, 53,003 ticks from six genera (Amblyomma, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus) were inspected for infection with B. burgdorferi. The pooled prevalence was 11.1% (95% CI = 8.3–14.2%). Among the nine countries, China had the most studies (56) and Malaysia had the highest infection rate (46.2%). Most infected ticks were from the genera Ixodes and Haemaphysalis. Ticks of the genus Ixodes had the highest infection rate (16.9%). Obvious heterogeneity was noted in our meta-analysis. We analyzed the heterogeneity with regard to countries, genera, time points, and detection methods. This study suggests that Ixodes, Haemaphysalis and Dermacentor may be the most common tike of B. burgdorferi-positive in Asia. The highest proportion of ticks infected by B. burgdorferi were from the genus Ixodes. This meta-analysis is the first attempt to explain the B. burgdorferi infection of hard-body ticks in Asia. The infection rate for each country and infection rate of different tick genera were analyzed: there were large differences between them. The literature is concentrates mainly on East Asia, and data are limited. Our study can provide a reference for a more comprehensive and in-depth investigation of ticks in Asia infected by B. burgdorferi spirochetes. View Full-Text
Keywords: Lyme disease; Borrelia burgdorferi; tick; Ixodes; meta-analysis Lyme disease; Borrelia burgdorferi; tick; Ixodes; meta-analysis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ji, Z.; Jian, M.; Yue, P.; Cao, W.; Xu, X.; Zhang, Y.; Pan, Y.; Yang, J.; Chen, J.; Liu, M.; Fan, Y.; Su, X.; Wen, S.; Kong, J.; Li, B.; Dong, Y.; Zhou, G.; Liu, A.; Bao, F. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodidae Tick around Asia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Pathogens 2022, 11, 143.

AMA Style

Ji Z, Jian M, Yue P, Cao W, Xu X, Zhang Y, Pan Y, Yang J, Chen J, Liu M, Fan Y, Su X, Wen S, Kong J, Li B, Dong Y, Zhou G, Liu A, Bao F. Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodidae Tick around Asia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Pathogens. 2022; 11(2):143.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ji, Zhenhua, Miaomiao Jian, Peng Yue, Wenjing Cao, Xin Xu, Yu Zhang, Yingyi Pan, Jiaru Yang, Jingjing Chen, Meixiao Liu, Yuxin Fan, Xuan Su, Shiyuan Wen, Jing Kong, Bingxue Li, Yan Dong, Guozhong Zhou, Aihua Liu, and Fukai Bao. 2022. "Prevalence of Borrelia burgdorferi in Ixodidae Tick around Asia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" Pathogens 11, no. 2: 143.

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