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Article

Epidemiological Aspects of Maternal and Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Panama

1
Centro de Biología Celular y Molecular de Enfermedades, Instituto de Investigaciones Científicas y Servicios de Alta Tecnología, Asociación de Interés Público (INDICASAT-AIP), Panama City 0843-01103, Panama
2
Laboratorio Clínico, Hospital Santo Tomás, Panama City 0816-00383, Panama
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Departamento de Microbiología y Parasitología, Escuela de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales Exactas y Tecnología, Universidad de Panamá, Panama 4, Panama City 3366, Panama
4
Departamento de Infectología, Hospital del Niño Dr. José Renán Esquivel, Panama City 0816-00383, Panama
5
Sistema Nacional de Investigación-Secretaría Nacional de Ciencia, Tecnología e Innovasión (SNI-SENACYT), Panama City 0816-02852, Panama
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Maternidad del Hospital Santo Tomás, Panama City 0816-00383, Panama
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Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Panamá, Panama 4, Panama City 3366, Panama
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Centros de Investigaciones Clínicas y Medicina Traslacional, Instituto de Investigaciones Científicas y Servicios de Alta Tecnología, Asociación de Interés Público (INDICASAT-AIP), Panama City 0843-01103, Panama
9
Toxoplasmosis Center, University of Chicago Medicine, Chicago, IL 60637, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Academic Editor: Despina G. Contopoulos-Ioannidis, MD
Pathogens 2021, 10(6), 764; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060764
Received: 12 May 2021 / Revised: 9 June 2021 / Accepted: 11 June 2021 / Published: 17 June 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Congenital and Perinatal Infections)
In Panama, epidemiological data on congenital toxoplasmosis are limited, making it difficult to understand the scope of clinical manifestations in the population and factors that may increase the risk of infection. This study provides insight into the epidemiological situation of maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis in Panama and contributing information on the burden of this disease in Central America. Blood samples were collected from 2326 pregnant women and used for the detection of anti-T. gondii antibodies. A high seroprevalence (44.41%) was observed for T. gondii infection in pregnant women from different regions of Panama, with an estimated incidence rate of congenital toxoplasmosis of 3.8 cases per 1000 live births. The main risk factors associated with T. gondii infection using bivariate statistical analysis were an elementary level education and maternal age range of 34-45 years. Multivariate statistical analyses revealed that in some regions (San Miguelito, North and West regions), the number of positive cases correlated with the presence of pets, stray dogs and the consumption of poultry. In other regions (East and Metropolitan regions), the absence of pets was considered a protective factor associated with negative cases, while the presence of stray cats and the age range of 25–34 years did not represent any risk in these regions. View Full-Text
Keywords: Toxoplasma gondii; seroprevalence; risk factors; pregnant women; newborns; perinatal; maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis Toxoplasma gondii; seroprevalence; risk factors; pregnant women; newborns; perinatal; maternal and congenital toxoplasmosis
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MDPI and ACS Style

Flores, C.; Villalobos-Cerrud, D.; Borace, J.; Fábrega, L.; Norero, X.; Sáez-Llorens, X.; Moreno, M.T.; Restrepo, C.M.; Llanes, A.; Quijada R., M.; Ladrón De Guevara, M.; Guzmán, G.; de la Guardia, V.; García, A.; Lucero, M.F.; Wong, D.; Mcleod, R.; Soberon, M.; Caballero E., Z. Epidemiological Aspects of Maternal and Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Panama. Pathogens 2021, 10, 764. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060764

AMA Style

Flores C, Villalobos-Cerrud D, Borace J, Fábrega L, Norero X, Sáez-Llorens X, Moreno MT, Restrepo CM, Llanes A, Quijada R. M, Ladrón De Guevara M, Guzmán G, de la Guardia V, García A, Lucero MF, Wong D, Mcleod R, Soberon M, Caballero E. Z. Epidemiological Aspects of Maternal and Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Panama. Pathogens. 2021; 10(6):764. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060764

Chicago/Turabian Style

Flores, Carlos, Delba Villalobos-Cerrud, Jovanna Borace, Lorena Fábrega, Ximena Norero, X. Sáez-Llorens, María T. Moreno, Carlos M. Restrepo, Alejandro Llanes, Mario Quijada R., Mayrene Ladrón De Guevara, German Guzmán, Valli de la Guardia, Anabel García, María F. Lucero, Digna Wong, Rima Mcleod, Mariangela Soberon, and Zuleima Caballero E. 2021. "Epidemiological Aspects of Maternal and Congenital Toxoplasmosis in Panama" Pathogens 10, no. 6: 764. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10060764

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