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Article

Unraveling the Contact Network Patterns between Commercial Turkey Operation in North Carolina and the Distribution of Salmonella Species

1
Department of Population Health and Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, Raleigh, NC 27607, USA
2
Prestage Farms, Inc., Clinton, NC 28328, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Csaba Varga
Pathogens 2021, 10(12), 1539; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10121539
Received: 20 October 2021 / Revised: 20 November 2021 / Accepted: 23 November 2021 / Published: 25 November 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Spatial Epidemiology and Surveillance of Foodborne Pathogens)
Salmonellosis originating from poultry poses a significant threat to human health. Surveillance within production is thus needed to minimize risk. The objectives of this work were to investigate the distribution of Salmonella spp. from a commercial turkey operation and describe the animal movement patterns to investigate the association between contact network structure and Salmonella infection status. Four years of routine growout farm samples along with data on facility location, time since barns were built, production style, and bird movement data were utilized. From all of the surveillance samples collected, Salmonella serotyping was performed on positive samples and results showed that the most represented groups were C1 (28.67%), B (24.37%) and C2 (17.13%). The serovar Infantis (26.44%) was the most highly represented, followed by Senftenberg (12.76%) and Albany (10.93%). Results illustrated the seasonality of Salmonella presence with a higher number of positive samples being collected in the second half of each calendar year. We also demonstrated that Salmonella was more likely to occur in samples from older farms compared to farms built more recently. The contact network connectivity was low, although a few highly connected farms were identified. Results of the contact network showed that the farms which tested positive for Salmonella were not clustered within the network, suggesting that even though Salmonella dissemination occurs via transferring infected birds, for this study case it is unlikely the most important route of transmission. In conclusion, this study identified seasonality of Salmonella with significantly more cases in the second half of each year and also uncovered the role of between-farm movement of birds as not a major mode of Salmonella transmission. View Full-Text
Keywords: Salmonella; network; risk factors; food-borne; turkey; North Carolina; prevalence Salmonella; network; risk factors; food-borne; turkey; North Carolina; prevalence
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ellington, C.; Hebron, C.; Crespo, R.; Machado, G. Unraveling the Contact Network Patterns between Commercial Turkey Operation in North Carolina and the Distribution of Salmonella Species. Pathogens 2021, 10, 1539. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10121539

AMA Style

Ellington C, Hebron C, Crespo R, Machado G. Unraveling the Contact Network Patterns between Commercial Turkey Operation in North Carolina and the Distribution of Salmonella Species. Pathogens. 2021; 10(12):1539. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10121539

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ellington, Cameron, Claude Hebron, Rocio Crespo, and Gustavo Machado. 2021. "Unraveling the Contact Network Patterns between Commercial Turkey Operation in North Carolina and the Distribution of Salmonella Species" Pathogens 10, no. 12: 1539. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10121539

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