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Article

Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia odocoilei, Babesia sp., Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato, and Hepatozoon canis in Ixodes scapularis Ticks Collected in Eastern Canada

1
Upper Grand Tick Centre, 365 St. David Street South, Fergus, ON N1M 2L7, Canada
2
Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
3
School of Environment and Natural Resources, College of Food, Agricultural, and Environmental Sciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Lawrence S. Young and Tai Soon Yong
Pathogens 2021, 10(10), 1265; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10101265
Received: 27 August 2021 / Revised: 10 September 2021 / Accepted: 21 September 2021 / Published: 1 October 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 10th Anniversary of Pathogens—Feature Papers)
Tick-borne pathogens cause infectious diseases that inflict much societal and financial hardship worldwide. Blacklegged ticks, Ixodes scapularis, are primary vectors of several epizootic and zoonotic pathogens. The aim was to find varius pathogens of I. scapularis and to determine their prevalence. In Ontario and Quebec, 113 I. scapularis ticks were collected from songbirds, mammals, including humans, and by flagging. PCR and DNA sequencing detected five different microorganisms: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, 1 (0.9%); Babesia odocoilei, 17 (15.3%); Babesia microti-like sp., 1 (0.9%); Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl), 29 (26.1%); and Hepatozoon canis, 1 (0.9%). Five coinfections of Bbsl and Babesia odocoilei occurred. Notably, H. canis was documented for the first time in Canada and, at the same time, demonstrates the first transstadial passage of H. canis in I. scapularis. Transstadial passage of Bbsl and B. odocoilei was also witnessed. A novel undescribed piroplasm (Babesia microti-like) was detected. An established population of I. scapularis ticks was detected at Ste-Anne-de-Bellevue, Quebec. Because songbirds widely disperse I. scapularis larvae and nymphs, exposure in an endemic area is not required to contract tick-borne zoonoses. Based on the diversity of zoonotic pathogens in I. scapularis ticks, clinicians need to be aware that people who are bitten by I. scapularis ticks may require select antimicrobial regimens. View Full-Text
Keywords: tick-borne pathogens; Anaplasma phagocytophilum; Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato; Babesia odocoilei; Babesia sp.; Hepatozoon canis; blacklegged tick; Ixodes scapularis; Ontario; Quebec tick-borne pathogens; Anaplasma phagocytophilum; Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato; Babesia odocoilei; Babesia sp.; Hepatozoon canis; blacklegged tick; Ixodes scapularis; Ontario; Quebec
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MDPI and ACS Style

Scott, J.D.; Pesapane, R.R. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia odocoilei, Babesia sp., Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato, and Hepatozoon canis in Ixodes scapularis Ticks Collected in Eastern Canada. Pathogens 2021, 10, 1265. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10101265

AMA Style

Scott JD, Pesapane RR. Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia odocoilei, Babesia sp., Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato, and Hepatozoon canis in Ixodes scapularis Ticks Collected in Eastern Canada. Pathogens. 2021; 10(10):1265. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10101265

Chicago/Turabian Style

Scott, John D., and Risa R. Pesapane. 2021. "Detection of Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Babesia odocoilei, Babesia sp., Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato, and Hepatozoon canis in Ixodes scapularis Ticks Collected in Eastern Canada" Pathogens 10, no. 10: 1265. https://doi.org/10.3390/pathogens10101265

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