2. The Pacific Northwest Border
3. Definitions and Legal Framing of Sex Trafficking
3.1. Definitions and Terminology
‘Trafficking in persons’ shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.
Trafficking in persons is about exploitation and does not necessarily involve movement. For the purpose of the trafficking offences, the Criminal Code states that a person exploits another person if they: cause someone to provide, or offer to provide, labour or a service by engaging in conduct that, in all the circumstances, could reasonably be expected to cause the other person to believe that their safety or the safety of a person known to them would be threatened if they failed to provide, or offer to provide, the labour or service.
- A person is guilty of trafficking in the first degree when:
- Such person:
- Recruits, harbors, transports, transfers, provides, obtains, buys, purchases, or receives by any means another person knowing, or in reckless disregard of the fact, (A) that force, fraud, or coercion … will be used to cause the person to engage in:
- Forced labor;
- Involuntary servitude;
- A sexually explicit act; or
- A commercial sex act, or (B) that the person has not attained the age of eighteen years and is caused to engage in a sexually explicit act or a commercial sex act.
- sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age; or
- the recruitment, harbouring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labour services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery.
3.2. Legal Framing in Canada and the United States
4. The State of Knowledge on Sex Trafficking in the Pacific Northwest
5. Responses to Sex Trafficking at the Border
5.1. Cross-Border Efforts to Combat Trafficking
5.2. Analysis of Border Mechanisms
6.1. Align Definitions of Sex Trafficking and Distinguish It from Sex Work
6.2. Increase Anti-Trafficking Training for Border Officials and Increase Public Awareness in Communities Near the Border
6.3. Open Channels of Communication between OCTIP and the Washington State Task Force and Renew BC’s Action Plan, Identifying Cross-Border Collaboration as a Priority Area
6.4. Establish Uniform Data Collection Mechanisms for Cross-Border Trafficking in the BC-Washington Region and Conduct an Official Evaluation of Bilateral Efforts
6.5. Lower Eligibility Requirements for the T-Visa
6.6. Decriminalize Sex Work and Solicitation of Sex Workers on Both Sides of the Border
7. Conclusions and Suggestions for Further Research
Conflicts of Interest
Glossary of Terms
|BTB||Beyond the Border Action Plan|
|CBCF||Cross-border Crime Forum|
|CBSA||Canada Border Services Agency|
|CPHA||Canadian Public Health Association|
|ESTA||Electronic System for Travel Authorization|
|eTA||Electronic Travel Authorization|
|IBETs||Integrated Border Enforcement Teams|
|IBITs||Integrated Border Intelligence Teams|
|ICMLEO||Integrated Cross-border Maritime Law Enforcement Operations/Shiprider|
|IRCC||Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada|
|IRPA||Immigration and Refugee Protection Act|
|OCTIP||Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons|
|RCMP||Royal Canadian Mounted Police|
|TRP||Temporary Resident Permit|
|T-Visa||Temporary Non-Immigrant Status Visa|
|TVPA||Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act|
|UN Protocol||The UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons|
|WHO||World Health Organization|
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The plan identified the following five priority areas to address in an effort to curb trafficking in the region: (1) raise awareness and increase public understanding of human trafficking in BC; (2) Increase the number of service providers and frontline personnel with training on human trafficking; (3) Empower and build capacity in local BC communities (including Indigenous communities) to prevent human trafficking and provide assistance to trafficked persons; (4) Increase coordination of services to address the unique needs of trafficked persons in B.C. communities, emphasizing culturally appropriate responses; and (5) Increase research, policy and legislative responses to human trafficking in BC (British Columbia Ministry of Justice 2013). The third-year status report of the Action Plan, released in September 2016, details some of the key initiatives taken by OCTIP and other organizations and service providers throughout the province (see British Columbia Ministry of Justice 2015).
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