Sex Trafficking at the Border: An Exploration of Anti-Trafficking Efforts in the Pacific Northwest
2. The Pacific Northwest Border
3. Definitions and Legal Framing of Sex Trafficking
3.1. Definitions and Terminology
‘Trafficking in persons’ shall mean the recruitment, transportation, transfer, harbouring or receipt of persons, by means of the threat or use of force or other forms of coercion, of abduction, of fraud, of deception, of the abuse of power or of a position of vulnerability or of the giving or receiving of payments or benefits to achieve the consent of a person having control over another person, for the purpose of exploitation. Exploitation shall include, at a minimum, the exploitation of the prostitution of others or other forms of sexual exploitation, forced labour or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude or the removal of organs.
Trafficking in persons is about exploitation and does not necessarily involve movement. For the purpose of the trafficking offences, the Criminal Code states that a person exploits another person if they: cause someone to provide, or offer to provide, labour or a service by engaging in conduct that, in all the circumstances, could reasonably be expected to cause the other person to believe that their safety or the safety of a person known to them would be threatened if they failed to provide, or offer to provide, the labour or service.
- A person is guilty of trafficking in the first degree when:
- Such person:
- Recruits, harbors, transports, transfers, provides, obtains, buys, purchases, or receives by any means another person knowing, or in reckless disregard of the fact, (A) that force, fraud, or coercion … will be used to cause the person to engage in:
- Forced labor;
- Involuntary servitude;
- A sexually explicit act; or
- A commercial sex act, or (B) that the person has not attained the age of eighteen years and is caused to engage in a sexually explicit act or a commercial sex act.
- sex trafficking in which a commercial sex act is induced by force, fraud, or coercion, or in which the person induced to perform such act has not attained 18 years of age; or
- the recruitment, harbouring, transportation, provision, or obtaining of a person for labour services, through the use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjection to involuntary servitude, peonage, debt bondage, or slavery.
3.2. Legal Framing in Canada and the United States
4. The State of Knowledge on Sex Trafficking in the Pacific Northwest
5. Responses to Sex Trafficking at the Border
5.1. Cross-Border Efforts to Combat Trafficking
5.2. Analysis of Border Mechanisms
6.1. Align Definitions of Sex Trafficking and Distinguish It from Sex Work
6.2. Increase Anti-Trafficking Training for Border Officials and Increase Public Awareness in Communities Near the Border
6.3. Open Channels of Communication between OCTIP and the Washington State Task Force and Renew BC’s Action Plan, Identifying Cross-Border Collaboration as a Priority Area
6.4. Establish Uniform Data Collection Mechanisms for Cross-Border Trafficking in the BC-Washington Region and Conduct an Official Evaluation of Bilateral Efforts
6.5. Lower Eligibility Requirements for the T-Visa
6.6. Decriminalize Sex Work and Solicitation of Sex Workers on Both Sides of the Border
7. Conclusions and Suggestions for Further Research
Conflicts of Interest
Glossary of Terms
|BTB||Beyond the Border Action Plan|
|CBCF||Cross-border Crime Forum|
|CBSA||Canada Border Services Agency|
|CPHA||Canadian Public Health Association|
|ESTA||Electronic System for Travel Authorization|
|eTA||Electronic Travel Authorization|
|IBETs||Integrated Border Enforcement Teams|
|IBITs||Integrated Border Intelligence Teams|
|ICMLEO||Integrated Cross-border Maritime Law Enforcement Operations/Shiprider|
|IRCC||Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada|
|IRPA||Immigration and Refugee Protection Act|
|OCTIP||Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons|
|RCMP||Royal Canadian Mounted Police|
|TRP||Temporary Resident Permit|
|T-Visa||Temporary Non-Immigrant Status Visa|
|TVPA||Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act|
|UN Protocol||The UN Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons|
|WHO||World Health Organization|
- Aradau, Claudia. 2003. Trafficking in women: Human rights or human risks? Canadian Women Studies 22: 55–59. [Google Scholar]
- Aromaa, Kauko. 2007. Trafficking in Human Beings: Uniform definitions for better measuring and for effective counter-measures. In Measuring Human Trafficking: Complexities and Pitfalls. Edited by Ernesto U. Savona and Sonia Stefanizzi. New York: Springer. [Google Scholar]
- Augustin, Laura. 2006. The Disappearing of a Migration Category: Migrants Who Sell Sex. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 32: 29–47. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Barrett, Nicole A. 2010. An Exploration of Promising Practices in Response to Human Trafficking in Canada. Vancouver: International Centre for Criminal Law Reform and Criminal Justice Policy. [Google Scholar]
- British Columbia Ministry of Justice. 2013. BC’s Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking, 2013–2016. Available online: http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/law-crime-and-justice/criminal-justice/victims-of-crime/human-trafficking/about-us/action-plan.pdf (accessed on 6 June 2016).
- British Columbia Ministry of Justice. 2015. BC’s Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking, Second Year Status Report, April 2014 to April 2015. Available online: http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/law-crime-and-justice/criminal-justice/victims-of-crime/human-trafficking/resources/2015-status-report.pdf (accessed on 8 June 2016).
- British Columbia Ministry of Public Safety and Solicitor General. 2016. BC’s Action Plan to Combat Human Trafficking, Third Year Status Report, April 2015 to June 2016. Available online: http://www2.gov.bc.ca/assets/gov/law-crime-and-justice/criminal-justice/victims-of-crime/human-trafficking/resources/2016-status-report.pdf (accessed on 15 October 2016).
- British Columbia Ministry of Transportation and Infrastructure. 2016. BC/US Border Traveller Information. Available online: http://www.th.gov.bc.ca/ATIS/Index.htm (accessed on 27 June 2016).
- Brown, Elizabeth Nolan. 2016. The Truth About the Biggest US Trafficking Story of the Year. Reason.com. September 9. Available online: http://reason.com/archives/2016/09/09/the-truth-about-us-sex-trafficking (accessed on 5 October 2016).
- Brownstone, Sydney. 2015. Meet the Sex Workers Who Lawmakers Don’t Believe Exist. The Stranger. Available online: http://www.thestranger.com/news/feature/2015/02/11/21689047/meet-the-sex-workers-who-lawmakers-dont-believe-exist (accessed on 8 April 2016).
- Brunet-Jailly, Emmanuel. 2008. Cascadia in Comparative Perspectives: Canada-U.S. Relations and the Emergence of Cross-Border Regions. Canadian Political Science Review 2: 104–24. [Google Scholar]
- Brunet-Jailly, Emmanuel. 2012. A new border? A Canadian perspective of the Canada-US border post-9/11. International Journal 67: 963–74. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Canadian Department of Justice. 2016. Human Trafficking Legislation. Available online: https://www.justice.gc.ca/eng/cj-jp/tp/legis-loi.html (accessed on 3 August 2016).
- Canadian Public Health Association. 2014. Sex Work in Canada: The Public Health Perspective. Ottawa: Canadian Public Health Association. [Google Scholar]
- Capous Desyllas, Moshoula. 2007. A Critique of the Global Trafficking Discourse and US Policy. Journal of Sociology & Social Welfare 34: 57–79. [Google Scholar]
- Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA). 2013. Entry/Exit Information System Phase I Joint Canada-United States Report. Available online: http://www.cbsa-asfc.gc.ca/btb-pdf/eeis-ponerep-sdes-rappun-eng.html (accessed on 16 July 2016).
- Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA). 2016. Entry/Exit Initiative. Available online: http://www.cbsa-asfc.gc.ca/btb-pdf/ebsiip-asfipi-eng.html (accessed on 10 October 2016).
- Chuang, Janie A. 2010. Rescuing trafficking from ideological capture: Prostitution reform and anti-trafficking law and policy. University of Pennsylvania Law Review 158: 1655–728. [Google Scholar]
- Citizenship and Immigration Canada Newsletter. Leniency Period for Full Implementation of Electronic Travel Authorization (eTA) System Extended Until November 9, 2016. September 21. Available online: http://www.cicnews.com/2016/09/leniency-period-implementation-eta-system-extended-november-9-2016-098518.html (accessed on 17 May 2019).
- Clarke, Susan. 2000. Regional and Transnational Discourse: The Politics of Ideas and Economic Development in Cascadia. International Journal of Economic Development 2: 360–78. [Google Scholar]
- Corvid, Margaret. 2014. Sex Work Is Work: Exploding the Sex Trafficking Myth. New Statesman. July 7. Available online: http://www.newstatesman.com/economics/2014/07/sex-work-work-exploding-sex-trafficking-myth (accessed on 8 April 2016).
- Ditmore, Melissa. 2015. Trafficking in lives: How ideology shapes policy. In Trafficking and Prostitution Reconsidered: New Perspectives on Migration, Sex Work, and Human Rights. Edited by Kamala Kempadoo, Jyoti Sanghera and Bandana Pattanaik. London: Paradigm, pp. 107–126. [Google Scholar]
- Doezema, Jo. 1999. Loose women or lost women? The re-emergence of the myth of white slavery in contemporary discourses of trafficking in women. Gender Issues 18: 23–50. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Espanol, Alicia, Giuseppina Marsico, and Luca Tateo. 2018. Maintaining borders: From border guards to diplomats. Human Affairs 29: 108–26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Farrell, Amy, and Stephanie Fahy. 2009. The problem of human trafficking in the US: Public frames and policy responses. Journal of Criminal Justice 37: 617–26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ferris, Shawna. 2015. Street Sex Work and Canadian Cities: Resisting a Dangerous Order. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press. [Google Scholar]
- Finn, Rachel L., and David Wright. 2012. Unmanned aircraft systems: Surveillance, ethics and privacy in civil applications. Computer Law & Security Review 28: 184–94. [Google Scholar]
- Government of Canada. 2015. 2014–15 Report on the Beyond the Border Action Plan Horizontal Initiative. Available online: http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/dprtmntl-prfrmnc-rprt-2014-15/btb/btb-en.pdf (accessed on 15 April 2016).
- Government of Canada. 2016a. Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (S.C. 2001, C. 27). Available online: http://laws.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/i-2.5/ (accessed on 10 October 2016).
- Government of Canada. 2016b. Integrated Cross-border Law Enforcement Operations Act. Available online: http://laws.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/I-14.7/page-1.html (accessed on 15 September 2016).
- Government of Canada. 2016c. Temporary Resident Permits (TRPs): Considerations Specific to Victims of Human Trafficking. Available online: http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/tools/temp/permits/victim.asp (accessed on 10 October 2016).
- Government of Canada. n.d. Electronic Travel Authorization (eTA). Available online: http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/visit/eta.asp (accessed on 10 October 2016).
- Gozdziak, Elzbieta M., and Elizabeth A. Collett. 2005. Research on Human Trafficking in North America: A Review of Literature. International Migration 43: 99–128. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Green, Sara Jean. 2016. Large prostitution ring, Bellevue brothels shut down. The Seattle Times. January 7. Available online: http://www.seattletimes.com/seattle-news/crime/online-site-where-men-rated-prostitutes-is-shut-down-charges-to-be-filed/ (accessed on 10 April 2016).
- Ham, Julie, Marie Segrave, and Sharon Pickering. 2013. In the Eyes of the Beholder: Border enforcement, suspect travellers and trafficking victims. Anti-Trafficking Review 2: 51–66. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hon Chu, Sandra Ka Hon, and Rebecca Glass. 2013. Sex work law reform in Canada: Considering problems with the Nordic model. Alberta Law Review 51: 101–24. [Google Scholar]
- Immigration and Refugee Protection Act (IRPA). 2001. Available online: https://laws.justice.gc.ca/eng/acts/i-2.5/page-1.html (accessed on 17 April 2016).
- Jackson, Crystal A. 2016. Framing Sex Worker Rights: How U.S. Sex Worker Rights Activists Perceive and Respond to Mainstream Anti–Sex Trafficking Advocacy. Sociological Perspectives 59: 27–45. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jeffrey, Leslie Ann. 2005. Canada and Migrant Sex Work: Challenging the ‘Foreign’ in Foreign Policy. Canadian Foreign Policy 12: 33–48. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kapur, Ratna. 2003. The “other” side of globalization: The legal regulation of cross-border movements. Canadian Woman Studies 22: 6–15. [Google Scholar]
- Kapur, Ratna. 2015. Cross-border Movements and the Law: Renegotiating the Boundaries of Difference. In Trafficking and Prostitution Reconsidered: New Perspectives on Migration, Sex Work, and Human Rights. Edited by Kamala Kempadoo, Jyoti Sanghera and Bandana Pattanaik. London: Paradigm, pp. 25–42. [Google Scholar]
- Kempadoo, Kamala. 2015. Abolitionism, Criminal Justice, and Transnational Feminism: Twenty-first-century Perspectives on Human Trafficking. In Trafficking and Prostitution Reconsidered: New Perspectives on Migration, Sex Work, and Human Rights. Edited by Kamala Kempadoo, Jyoti Sanghera and Bandana Pattanaik. London: Paradigm, pp. vii–xxxv. [Google Scholar]
- Kohl-Welles, Jeanne. 2012. Landmark Washington State Accomplishments to Prevent Human Trafficking and Sexual Exploitation of Minors. Olympia: Washington State Senate. [Google Scholar]
- Konrad, Victor, and Heather N. Nicol. 2011. Border Culture, the Boundary Between Canada and the United States of America, and the Advancement of Borderlands Theory. Geopolitics 16: 70–90. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- McAdam, Marika. 2013. Who’s Who at the Border? A rights-based approach to identifying human trafficking at international borders. Anti-Trafficking Review 2: 33–49. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- McDonald, William F. 2014. Explaining the under-performance of the anti-human trafficking campaign: Experience from the United States and Europe. Crime Law Social Change 61: 125–38. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- McIntyre, Catherine. 2015. Migrant Sex Workers Caught up in Ottawa Sting Facing Deportation, Further Exploitation. National Post. May 13. Available online: http://news.nationalpost.com/news/canada/migrant-sex-workers-caught-up-in-ottawa-sting-facing-deportation-further-exploitation-activists (accessed on 10 April 2016).
- Migrant Sex Workers Project. n.d. About. Available online: http://www.migrantsexworkers.com/about.html (accessed on 11 April 2016).
- Miller, Rebecca, and Sebastian Baumeister. 2013. Managing Migration: Is border control fundamental to anti-trafficking and anti-smuggling interventions? Anti-Trafficking Review 2: 15–32. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Molnar, Adam, and Christopher Parsons. 2016. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) and Law Enforcement in Australia and Canada: Governance Through ‘Privacy’in an Era of Counter-Law? In National Security, Surveillance and Terror. Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, pp. 225–47. [Google Scholar]
- National Post. 2015. Judge Gives ‘Psychopathic’ Vancouver Pimp Longer Sentence than Crown Sought—23 Years. National Post. November 11. Available online: http://news.nationalpost.com/news/canada/judge-gives-psychopathic-vancouver-pimp-longer-sentence-than-crown-sought-23-years (accessed on 21 April 2016).
- Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons (OCTIP). 2014. Human Trafficking: Canada Is Not Immune. Online Training. Available online: http://www.pssg.gov.bc.ca/octiptraining/index.html (accessed on 12 May 2016).
- Oxman-Martinez, Jacqueline, Jill Hanley, and Fanny Gomez. 2005. Canadian Policy on Human Trafficking: A Four-year Analysis. International Migration 43: 17–27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Paasi, Anssi. 2009. Bounded spaces in a ‘borderless world’: Border studies, power and the anatomy of territory. Journal of Power 2: 213–34. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Perrin, Benjamin. 2010a. Trafficking in Persons and Transit Countries: A Canada-U.S. Case Study in Global Perspective. Vancouver: Metropolis BC. [Google Scholar]
- Perrin, Benjamin. 2010b. Invisible Chains: Canada’s Underground World of Human Trafficking. Toronto: Penguin Group. [Google Scholar]
- Perrin, Benjamin. 2010c. Just Passing Through? International Legal Obligations and Policies of Transit Countries in Combating Trafficking in Persons. European Journal of Criminology 7: 11–27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Perrin, Benjamin. 2014. Oldest Profession or Oldest Oppression? Addressing Prostitution after the Supreme Court of Canada Decision in Canada v. Bedford. Ottawa: Macdonald-Laurier Institute. [Google Scholar]
- Peters, Alicia W. 2015. Responding to Human Trafficking: Sex, Gender, and Culture in the Law. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press. [Google Scholar]
- Pham, Lan. 2012. Ending Commercial Sexual Exploitation: A Local Coordinated Response Assessment and Strategic Framework Addressing Sex Trafficking of Minors in Seattle—King County. Seattle: Seattle Human Services Department. [Google Scholar]
- Pickering, Sharon, and Julie Ham. 2013. Hot pants at the border: Sorting sex work from trafficking. British Journal of Criminology 54: 2–19. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Porter, Victor, and Office to Combat Trafficking in Persons, Vancouver, Canada. 2016. Personal communication, April 19.
- Public Safety Canada. 2015a. Canada-United States Cross-Border Crime Forum. Available online: http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/brdr-strtgs/crss-brdr-crm-frm-en.aspx (accessed on 18 July 2016).
- Public Safety Canada. 2015b. Integrated Border Enforcement Teams. Available online: https://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/brdr-strtgs/brdr-lw-nfrcmnt/ntgrtd-brdr-nforcmnt-tms-eng.aspx (accessed on 20 July 2016).
- Royal Canadian Mounted Police Human Trafficking Intelligence. 2010. Human Trafficking in Canada (Project Seclusion). Ottawa: RCMP. [Google Scholar]
- Royal Canadian Mounted Police Human Trafficking National Coordination Centre. 2013. Human Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation in Canada (Project Safekeeping). Ottawa: RCMP. [Google Scholar]
- Royal Canadian Mounted Police. 2015. Canada-US Shiprider. Available online: http://www.rcmp-grc.gc.ca/ibet-eipf/shiprider-eng.htm (accessed on 5 June 2016).
- Schwartz, Daniel. 2014. Sex Workers Like New Zealand Law, But Not Canada’s New ‘Nordic Model’ for Prostitution. CBC News. June 5. Available online: http://www.cbc.ca/news/politics/sex-workers-like-new-zealand-law-not-canada-s-new-nordic-model-for-prostitution-1.2665431 (accessed on 11 April 2016).
- Sethi, Anupriya. 2007. Domestic Sex Trafficking of Indigenous Girls in Canada: Issues and Implications. First Peoples Child & Family Review 3: 57–71. [Google Scholar]
- Storer, Paul, David L. Davidson, and Laurie Trautman. 2015. Washington State’s Economy in Relation to Canada and the Border. Border Policy Research Institute Publications. Available online: https://cedar.wwu.edu/bpri_publications/92/ (accessed on 12 June 2016).
- The Genesis Project. 2013. The Problem. Available online: http://genesisnow.org/the-problem/ (accessed on 11 April 2016).
- United Nations. 2000. Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Person, Especially Women and Children, Supplementing the United Nations Convention against Transnational Organized Crime. Available online: https://www.ohchr.org/en/ProfessionalInterest/Pages/ProtocolTraffickingInPersons.aspx (accessed on 5 April 2016).
- United States-Canada. 2006. Bi-National Assessment of Trafficking in Persons. Available online: http://www.publicsafety.gc.ca/cnt/rsrcs/pblctns/archive-ssssmnt-trffckng-prsns/index-en.aspx (accessed on 5 April 2016).
- US Citizenship and Immigration Services. 2011. Victims of Human Trafficking: T Non-immigrant Status. Available online: https://www.uscis.gov/humanitarian/victims-human-trafficking-other-crimes/victims-human-trafficking-t-nonimmigrant-status (accessed on 15 May 2016).
- US Customs and Border Protection. 2016. Electronic System for Travel Authorization. Available online: https://www.cbp.gov/travel/international-visitors/esta (accessed on 4 June 2016).
- US Department of Homeland Security. 2015. Human Trafficking Laws and Regulations. Available online: https://www.dhs.gov/human-trafficking-laws-regulations (accessed on 16 April 2016).
- US Department of Justice. 2015. Citizen’s Guide to US Federal Law on the Prostitution of Children. Available online: https://www.justice.gov/criminal-ceos/citizens-guide-us-federal-law-prostitution-children (accessed on 16 April 2016).
- US Department of State. 2000. Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000. Available online: http://www.state.gov/j/tip/laws/ (accessed on 5 April 2016).
- US Department of State. 2016. Trafficking in Persons Report 2016. Available online: http://www.state.gov/j/tip/rls/tiprpt/2016/ (accessed on 4 April 2016).
- Washington State Legislature. 2013. RCW 9A.40.100. Available online: http://apps.leg.wa.gov/rcw/default.aspx?cite=9A.40.100 (accessed on 10 April 2016).
- Washington State Legislature. 2015. SR 8644—2015-16. Available online: https://app.leg.wa.gov/billsummary?BillNumber=8644&Year=2015&Initiative=False#documentSection (accessed on 10 April 2016).
- Washington State Task Force against the Trafficking in Persons. 2008. Report to the Legislature. Olympia: Washington State Department of Community, Trade and Economic Development. [Google Scholar]
- Weitzer, Ronald. 2007. The Social Construction of Sex Trafficking: Ideology and Institutionalization of a Moral Crusade. Politics and Society 35: 447–75. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wetmore, Jennifer M. 2003. The New T Visa: Is the Higher Extreme Hardship Standard Too High for Bona Fide Trafficking Victims? New England Journal of International and Comparative Law 9: 159–76. [Google Scholar]
- Williamson, Hugh R. 2009. Illegal Immigration to Canada by Sea: An Integrated Marine Security Response. In Understanding and Strengthening European Union-Canada Relations in Law of the Sea and Ocean Governance. Edited by Timo Koivurova, Aldo Chircop, Erik Franckx, Erik J. Molenaar and David L. VanderZwaag. Rovaniemi: University of Lapland Printing Centre. [Google Scholar]
- Young, Becki. 1998. Trafficking of humans across United States borders: How United States laws can be used to punish traffickers and protect victims. Georgetown Immigration Law Journal 13: 73–104. [Google Scholar]
The plan identified the following five priority areas to address in an effort to curb trafficking in the region: (1) raise awareness and increase public understanding of human trafficking in BC; (2) Increase the number of service providers and frontline personnel with training on human trafficking; (3) Empower and build capacity in local BC communities (including Indigenous communities) to prevent human trafficking and provide assistance to trafficked persons; (4) Increase coordination of services to address the unique needs of trafficked persons in B.C. communities, emphasizing culturally appropriate responses; and (5) Increase research, policy and legislative responses to human trafficking in BC (British Columbia Ministry of Justice 2013). The third-year status report of the Action Plan, released in September 2016, details some of the key initiatives taken by OCTIP and other organizations and service providers throughout the province (see British Columbia Ministry of Justice 2015).
© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Norfolk, A.; Hallgrimsdottir, H. Sex Trafficking at the Border: An Exploration of Anti-Trafficking Efforts in the Pacific Northwest. Soc. Sci. 2019, 8, 155. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8050155
Norfolk A, Hallgrimsdottir H. Sex Trafficking at the Border: An Exploration of Anti-Trafficking Efforts in the Pacific Northwest. Social Sciences. 2019; 8(5):155. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8050155Chicago/Turabian Style
Norfolk, Alexander, and Helga Hallgrimsdottir. 2019. "Sex Trafficking at the Border: An Exploration of Anti-Trafficking Efforts in the Pacific Northwest" Social Sciences 8, no. 5: 155. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci8050155