Next Article in Journal
The Effect of Gender on Stress Factors: An Exploratory Study among University Students
Next Article in Special Issue
Intersectoral Mobilization in Child Development: An Outcome Assessment of the Survey of the School Readiness of Montreal Children
Previous Article in Journal
Finnish Mothers’ Assessments of the Harmfulness of Childcare at Home on Occupational Careers: A Comparison of Twelve European Countries
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

Who Benefits from Public Healthcare Subsidies in Egypt?

Department of Economics, Philipps-Universität Marburg, Marburg 35037, Germany
Department of Economics, Faculty of Commerce, Damanhour University, Damanhour 22514, Egypt
Department of Economics, Faculty of Arts, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2H4, Canada
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Jerry D. Marx
Soc. Sci. 2015, 4(4), 1162-1176;
Received: 20 August 2015 / Revised: 10 November 2015 / Accepted: 19 November 2015 / Published: 25 November 2015
PDF [614 KB, uploaded 25 November 2015]


Direct subsidization of healthcare services has been widely used in many countries to improve health outcomes. It is commonly believed that the poor are the main beneficiaries from these subsidies. We test this hypothesis in Egypt by empirically analyzing the distribution of public healthcare subsidies using data from Egypt Demographic and Health Survey and Egypt National Health Accounts. To determine the distribution of public health care subsidies, we conducted a Benefit Incidence Analysis. As a robustness check, both concentration and Kakwani indices for outpatient, inpatient, and total healthcare were also calculated. Results show some degree of inequality in the benefits from public healthcare services, which varied by the type of healthcare provided. In particular, subsidies associated with University hospitals are pro-rich and have inequality increasing effect, while subsidies associated with outpatient and inpatient care provided by the Ministry of Health and Population have not been pro-poor but have inequality reducing effect (weakly progressive). Results were robust to the different analytical methods. While it is widely perceived that the poor benefit the most from health subsidies, the findings of this study refute this hypothesis in the case of Egypt. Poverty reduction measures and healthcare reforms in Egypt should not only focus on expanding the coverage of healthcare benefits, but also on improving the equity of its distribution. View Full-Text
Keywords: benefit incidence analysis; healthcare subsidies; inequality; poverty; Egypt benefit incidence analysis; healthcare subsidies; inequality; poverty; Egypt

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
Printed Edition Available!
A printed edition of this Special Issue is available here.

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Rashad, A.S.; Sharaf, M.F. Who Benefits from Public Healthcare Subsidies in Egypt? Soc. Sci. 2015, 4, 1162-1176.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Soc. Sci. EISSN 2076-0760 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top