Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Sexual Motivations and Ideals Distinguish Sexual Identities within the Self-Concept: A Multidimensional Scaling Analysis
Previous Article in Journal
Correction: Bouvet F., et al., Debt Contagion in Europe: A Panel-Vector Autoregressive (VAR) Analysis. Soc. Sci. 2013, 2, 318–340
Previous Article in Special Issue
Peer Influence and Attraction to Interracial Romantic Relationships
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Soc. Sci. 2014, 3(2), 194-214;

Stanley Milgram’s Obedience to Authority “Relationship” Condition: Some Methodological and Theoretical Implications

Departments of Criminal Justice, Sociology, History, and Social Development and Family Studies, Nipissing University, 100 College Drive, North Bay, ON P1B 8L7, Canada
Received: 28 January 2014 / Revised: 31 March 2014 / Accepted: 9 April 2014 / Published: 15 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Social and Personal Relationships)
Full-Text   |   PDF [145 KB, uploaded 15 April 2014]


In May 1962, social psychologist, Stanley Milgram, ran what was arguably the most controversial variation of his Obedience to Authority (OTA) experiments: the Relationship Condition (RC). In the RC, participants were required to bring a friend, with one becoming the teacher and the other the learner. The learners were covertly informed that the experiment was actually exploring whether their friend would obey an experimenter’s orders to hurt them. Learners were quickly trained in how to react to the impending “shocks”. Only 15 percent of teachers completed the RC. In an article published in 1965, Milgram discussed most of the variations on his baseline experiment, but only named the RC in passing, promising a more detailed account in his forthcoming book. However, his 1974 book failed to mention the RC and it remained unpublished until François Rochat and Andre Modigliani discovered it in Milgram’s personal archive in 1997 at Yale University. Their overview of the RC’s procedure and results left a number of questions unanswered. For example, what were the etiological origins of the RC? Why did Milgram decide against publishing this experiment? And does the RC have any significant methodological or theoretical implications on the Obedience studies discourse? Based on documents obtained from Milgram’s personal archive, the aim of this article is to shed new light on these questions. View Full-Text
Keywords: obedience; Milgram; relationship condition; methodology; theory obedience; Milgram; relationship condition; methodology; theory
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Russell, N. Stanley Milgram’s Obedience to Authority “Relationship” Condition: Some Methodological and Theoretical Implications. Soc. Sci. 2014, 3, 194-214.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Soc. Sci. EISSN 2076-0760 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top