The Role of Expertise in Discovery. Comment on Sutton and Griffiths (2018). Using Date Specific Searches on Google Books to Disconfirm Prior Origination Knowledge Claims for Particular Terms, Words, and Names. Social Sciences 7: 66
“Answering the most basic research question, as to whether the manual IDD method, or using Google Books Advanced Book Search as it currently functions, is better than referring to expert knowledge in highly esteemed publications, the research conducted here found publications containing earlier than previously published use of words, terms, and names that had, until then, lain undetected in the historic publication record… each of these newly found facts has been shown to disconfirm expert knowledge claims regarding the history of the published origins of specific names, terms, and phrases.”
2. Faults with Method
3. Appropriation of Default Functionality
4. Appropriation of Public Resource
5. Misconceptions about Mechanism
6. Faults with Examples
“W. I. Thomas, the dean of American sociologists, set forth a theorem basic to the social sciences: “If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences”.… essentially the same theorem had been repeatedly set forth by disciplined and observant minds long before Thomas… we find this mixed company (and I select from a longer if less distinguished list) agreeing on the truth and the pertinence of what is substantially the Thomas theorem… To what, then, are Thomas and Bossuet, Mandeville, Marx, Freud and Sumner directing our attention?”
|“If men define situations as real, they are real in their consequences”.|
(Thomas and Thomas 1928)
|“The self-fulfilling prophecy is, in the beginning, a false definition of the situation evoking a new behaviour which makes the originally false conception come true”.|
- Claim 1.1:“Textbooks (e.g., Gold 2009; Hoffer 2010), and arguably less scholarly online sources such as Wikipedia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-fulfilling_prophecy, access on 29 September 2020) simply claim that the sociologist Merton (1948) coined the basic term” (Sutton and Griffiths 2018, p. 3).
- Test:Sutton and Griffiths (2018) alleged the references provided claimed Merton coined7 the term “self-fulfilling prophecy”, before applying the method to “verify whether Merton was the originator of the term ‘self-fulfilling prophecy’” (Sutton and Griffiths 2018, p. 3). It follows that the accusation is that those references claimed Merton invented the phrase “self-fulfilling prophecy”.
“Robert King Merton coined English self-fulfilling prophecy (Cohen 1998, pp. B9, B13) and first used it in print in his Social Theory and SocialStructure (1949, p. vii). That is indeed the earliest citation for the term in The Oxford English Dictionary, which should have added that he coined it.”
“Even if most people haven’t heard of Mr. Merton, they have probably heard of his ideas. He coined the phrase ‘’self-fulfilling prophecy’’ and developed the idea of ’role models’”.
“The self-fulfilling prophecy is rarely given credit for what it is—an argument about causation. The term was coined in 1949 by the sociologist Robert K. Merton, but the phenomenon is as old as human psychology”.
“Using Thomas’ idea, another American sociologist, Robert K. Merton, coined the term “self-fulfilling prophecy”, popularizing the idea that “a belief or expectation, correct or incorrect, could bring about a desired or expected outcome”… Merton applied this concept to a fictional situation. In his book Social Theory and Social Structure, he uses the example of a bank run to show how self-fulfilling thoughts can make unwanted situations happen”.
- Claim1.2:Sutton and Griffiths’ (2018, p. 3) stated aim was, “Avoiding opening up a new debate as to whether Merton’s use ‘coined’ a specific sociological meaning, but to simply verify whether Merton was the originator of the term ‘self-fulfilling prophecy’, the six following very specific steps were taken…”. At this point the paper expounded on the method, describing the six-stage process executed in Google Books, discussed above and deconstructed in Appendix A. The paper claimed that it produced, “numerous pre-1948 books containing the precise phrase, many books in the nineteenth century. This proves that Merton never coined the term”. (Sutton and Griffiths 2018, p. 3, Step 5). Again, it is clear that the accusation was related to invention and not application to a new context.
- Test: Repeating the same search “self-fulfilling prophecy” between 1 January 1500, and 31 December 1948 (Sutton and Griffiths 2018, p. 3, Step 4), returned 20 viable items for verification (Table 1). After checking, 18 items were deemed invalid for inclusion, all having been published later than 1948. Only two (items #2 and #19) qualified for further consideration, as they were dated correctly in their metadata, with publication dates prior to 1949. Of these two, one (#19) was Merton’s 1948 paper.
“It is not in such a way that truth operates and grows, as it is not by the putting together of particles that life is produced; but the life puts together the parts, and constitutes the body; and from the operation of the awakened idea to its development in the practical form is the right process of conviction and conversion in the minds of men... We say, let the idea of what we want penetrate our rulers and our people, and it will be a self-fulfilling prophecy of what we shall have.”
- Result:Sutton and Griffiths (2018) was wrong in this claim because it mistook a history of citation and misrepresented the literature by asserting equality for an antithetical context. If any misappropriation occurred, it was by Thomas copying from one of the early publications, but this is tenuous given the sociological framework that was constructed (Thomas and Znaniecki 1918, Thomas and Thomas 1928), since they did not employ the phrase “self-fulfilling prophecy”. Vitally, Merton (1948) did not misappropriate the concept from Thomas and Thomas (1928), nor the phrase “self-fulfilling prophecy” from any previous writer, because the search items produced by Sutton and Griffith’s (2018) proposed method were predominantly invalid (19 out of 20 is equivalent to a 95% error rate), and whenever it did appear earlier, the context was antithetical to Merton’s concept.
- 1485: Battle of Bosworth—Richard III—horse named “Wall”, also slang for Welshman Henry Tudor.
- 1530: Cardinal Wolsey’s flight from Cawood, Yorkshire, returning to London, but died in Leicester.
- 1648: A cannon that broke through Colchester’s St. Mary’s Church’s tower roof on June 15th, when fired by One-Eyed Jack Thompson, during the Second English Civil War (see below). Moreover, suggested is Charles I, himself.
- C18th.: A clumsy person.
- 1797: As a character in nursery rhyme (Samuel Arnold’s Juvenile Amusements).
- 1810: Gammer Gurton’s Garland (Ritson 1810), with a variation of the original poem.
- 1841: James Orchard Halliwell’s The Nursery Rhymes of England, with a modification of the original verse (Halliwell 1842, p. 92).
- 1843: The 2nd edition of Halliwell’s work, with further modification (Halliwell 1843, p. 113).
- c. 1850: A pantomime character, “Humpty Dumpty is an intelligible sprite, who issues from an egg” (Tallis 1850, p. 83).
- 1871: The egg in Dodgson’s (Lewis Carroll) Alice in Wonderland.
- Claim 2: “The character name Humpty Dumpty appears to be derived from the classical comedy character villain Punchinello (predecessor of Mr. Punch)—see Anonymous (1701, p. 28): ‘Beau Humpty-dumpty next appears/A merry Lump well grown in Years/With Back and Breast like Punchanello’ Moreover, disconfirming the apocryphal story of the siege of Colchester (e.g., Willock et al. 2014), the present authors found no evidence whatsoever in the historic literature record of a Royalist force cannon in the English civil war named Humpty Dumpty. But IDD originally revealed that there was one used by the Parliamentary forces named Punchinello (see Pepys 1665, p. 1065).” Sutton and Griffiths (2018, p. 4)
- Test: There is an allusion only (“like”), to a similar body type, in the quoted poem, “Beau Humpty-dumpty next appears/A merry Lump well grown in Years / With Back and Breast like Punchanello”. The poem then immediately proceeds to dissociate the two characters, “But for his parts has not his fellow”. Sutton and Griffiths (2018, p. 4) omitted that contradictory part and, thus, presented a false comparison to forward an unfounded suggestion that “The character name Humpty Dumpty appears to be derived from the classical comedy character villain Punchinello” (Sutton and Griffiths 2018, p. 4).
- Result:Sutton and Griffiths (2018) presented false evidence and, thus, did not connect Humpty Dumpty with Punchinello other than via juxtaposition. Hence, the Colchester folktale is still relevant, and was not about a gun called “Humpty Dumpty”, as was claimed. The later gun seen by Pepys is likely unrelated.
- Test: The article Sutton and Griffiths (2018, p. 4) claimed to have first mentioned the term “living fossil”, was a letter by Edward Lhuyd (his chosen spelling), reporting to the editor of the Philosophical Transactions that he was to return with “the Account of the living Fossil Muscles”, a witness statement to be signed by four labourers attesting to having found some specimens of interest in Wales (Lhuyd 1699).14
- Result: The mention by Lhuyd was referring to an anomaly of some mussels being strangely discovered in inland Wales, miles from the sea and at altitude, and unrelated to a modern organism appearing ancient. Sutton and Griffiths (2018) are wrong in this claim because it refers to a coincidental word sequence and has nothing to do with their palaeontology nor phylogenesis. Even by coincidence, Mytilis is not considered a living fossil (sensu Darwin 1859).
- Claim 4:The term, close to its most basic modern usage of escalating demonization of a group, as opposed to a flight caused by conscience (e.g., Quarterly Christian Spectator 1830), was used at least 46 years earlier than reported by the OED (see Journal of Health Conducted by an Association of Physicians 1832): ‘Megandie a French physician of note on his visit to Sunderland where the Cholera was by the last accounts still raging praises the English government for not surrounding the town with a cordon of troops which as ‘a physical preventive would have been ineffectual and would have produced a moral panic far more fatal than the disease now is’. (Sutton and Griffiths 2018, pp. 4–5)
- Test: The François Magendie quote was from a letter to the President of the French Institute, Constant Duméril; thus, the original (Delaunay 1933, pp. 38–39) was, of course, in French, where it is significant that any equivalent words for “moral” and “panic” do not appear. This is because the quote appearing in the Journal of Health cited by Sutton and Griffiths (2018, p. 4) was a mistranslation, an artefact of translation, and, therefore, an invention of the translator and a coincidental word sequence. An alternative, accurate translation appeared in the Cholera Gazette in 1832, in which the words “moral” and “panic”, quite rightly, also do not appear. Instead, the effect of poor sanitation was said to produce “consternation or despair” (Magendie 1832, p. 6).
“Le point capital est qu’aucune mesure sanitaire n’a été prise et tout le monde est d’avis que si le gouvernement anglais avait ordonné l’isolment par un cordon de troupes, la population de Sunderland, qui est d’environ 40,000 àmes, au lieu d’ètre comme aujourd’hui tranquille, ne paraissant donner ou ne donnant même presque aucune attention à la maladie, serait bientôt troublée et au désespoir et qu’il s’en suivrait des événments plus graves que le mal luimême.”(“The chief point is that no sanitary measure has been adopted, and all are of the opinion that if the English government had surrounded, by a cordon of troops, the people of Sunderland, who amounted to about 40,000, in place of being as they now are, tranquil, and gave little or no attention to the disease, they would have been soon thrown into consternation or despair, and events would have occurred more serious even than the disease itself.”)
- “Only last Sunday, my Lady, in the desolation of Boredom and the clutch of Giant Despair, almost hated her own maid for being in spirits.”
- “My Lady, whose chronic malady of boredom has been sadly aggravated by Volumnia this evening, glances wearily towards the candlesticks and heaves a noiseless sigh.”
- “The cousin, who has been casting sofa-pillows on his head, in a prostration of boredom yawns, …”
- “But Volumnia the fair, being subject to the prevalent complaint of boredom and finding that disorder attacking her spirits with some virulence, ...”
- “The fair Volumnia, being one of those sprightly girls who cannot long continue silent without imminent peril of seizure by the dragon Boredom, soon indicates the approach of that monster with a series of undisguisable yawns.”
- “Volumnia, in the course of her bird-like hopping about and pecking at papers, has alighted on a memorandum concerning herself in the event of “anything happening” to her kinsman, which is handsome compensation for an extensive course of reading and holds even the dragon Boredom at bay.”
- Test: In contrast to Dickens, the appearance of “boredom” that Sutton and Griffiths (2018, p. 5) claimed to be an earlier instance is not one of tedium. Gore’s concoction was either an honest misunderstanding or wordplay, with the intended meaning to be either in the sense of “bearing” (as in “comport”, “mien”, “standing”, “conduct”), “boring” (as in “drill”, “penetration”, “reach”) or “bore” (sensu pugilism, “pressing”, “forcing”),
“She beheld her subjects transformed as by the influence of Circe’s wand; she saw personages whom she had long esteemed as rational beings, excellent citizens, simple Christians, suddenly converted into ambling, mincing fops, or sententious formalities; poising their words, and polishing their sentences to the very acme of boredom. The men of the law attempted to talk like judges; the men of letters like academicians; both equally affecting to theorize and dazzle in their originality.”
- Result: This claim is incorrect because it conflates meaning; Gore’s intended sense of the word does not match one of tedium and ennui.
“We note again that the selfish genes for seed growth tend to waste their powers a little not only because of the assortation due to relationship but also because of the purely chance occurrence of extreme situations where gene-replicas are largely in competition with one another”.
- Claim 6: “Over 100 science websites, scholarly books, and peer-reviewed journal papers… all assert that the renowned Darwinist, Richard Dawkins, coined the term ‘selfish gene’ in his 1976 book of the same name. The IDD method demonstrated that William Hamilton used it in a prior published paper (Hamilton 1971). Five years later, he cited other publications by Hamilton as a major influence on his thinking, but Dawkins used the term and concept without citing Hamilton’s prior-publication as the origin of the term.” (Sutton and Griffiths 2018, p. 5)
- Test: This final example offered in support of the method, perhaps more than any of those preceding it, highlights how locating words and phrases without context is a fatuous exercise. More importantly, it demonstrates how crucial it is to have expertise in the relevant discipline, in order to possess an understanding of context. Having found Hamilton’s writings within the biological literature published before The Selfish Gene (Dawkins 1976), Sutton and Griffiths (2018) made an accusation of plagiarism over the origins of the term, then quoted epigenetics’ theorists Eva Jablonka and Marion Lamb as if they were corroborating that claim,
‘Richard Dawkins took up Hamilton’s approach. Extended it and popularised it. He suggested that taking a gene’s eye view can help us to understand the evolution of all adaptive traits, not just the paradoxical ones like altruism. He coined the term selfish gene, which recognizes that the “interests” of a gene may not coincide with the interests of the individual carrying it.’”
“From the point of view of a gene for altruism, it can increase its representation in the next generation if it makes the animals carrying it help their kin to survive and reproduce, because kin are likely to carry copies of it.”
“Metaphorically speaking, the gene is ‘selfish’ because the effects it has on the well-being or the reproductive success of the individual carrying it do not matter so long as they enhance the chances that it, the gene, will have more representatives in the next generations.”
- Result:Sutton and Griffiths (2018) were wrong in this claim because all genes are “selfish” (sensu Dawkins), but not all genes code for selfish behaviours (sensu Hamilton). These applications of the term are fundamentally different and, consequently, cause no confusion for those familiar with the related theory.
7. Discussion and Conclusions
8. False Accusations
- ‘Self-fulfilling prophecy’: the evidence for earlier appearances of the phrase was false.
- ‘Humpty Dumpty’: the quote given was incomplete and misrepresentative.
- ‘Living fossil’: the earlier appearance of the term was unrelated and coincidental.
- ‘Moral panic’: the earlier instance was an artefact of translation, unrelated and coincidental.
- ‘Boredom’: the earlier instance was unrelated and coincidental.
- ‘Selfish gene’: the earlier concept was distinct and causes no confusion within biology.
9. Academic Value
Conflicts of Interest
“If the user lets it, Google removes the Boolean element from the user’s search after their first try… the IDD method overrides Google’s programmed default position, on its default search engine page which is possibly there to save valuable server processing time in favor of non-academic users clicking revenue generating advertisements and leaving, rather than exploiting its method to the full for scholarly purposes.”
- correct date
- correct date
The initial ‘Staffordshire Hoard’ specimens were found in July 2009 by Terry Herbert, a metal-detecting enthusiast, in a newly ploughed field on Fred Johnson’s farmland near Brownhills, which Herbert then revisited for five days, carrying off a total of five kilos of gold and 1.5 kilos of silver (Leahy et al. 2011). In terms of academia, the real value of discovery is practically nothing, if it doesn’t then go on to contribute to knowledge. The major part of the excavation site was painstakingly worked by professional archaeologists over the subsequent three and a half years (of which 5 days is 0.4%). The professionals excavated about 3500 pieces, compared to the original 500 retrieved by Herbert (ibid.). In addition, the conservation project, to preserve and find meaning from the artefacts (e.g., Castriota 2016), was instigated at a conference in 2010, and only wrapped up in 2016, having involved “Many professionals, students and volunteers” (https://www.staffordshirehoard.org.uk/conservation-journal accessed on 29 September 2020). Meanwhile, Herbert and Johnson fell out over the shared reward (£3.28 million) for the hoard. They both accused the other of greed. Johnson said all Herbert would talk about is how much they were going to get (e.g., Roberts 2011). The draw of a financial reward often compromises what might be usefully gained for archaeology, motivating the plundering and wrecking of sites; careless removal of buried artefacts by “metal detectorists” is a much-despised activity, as it inevitably ruins the opportunity for professional archaeologists to learn about the historical context from the objects in situ. To excavate the ‘Staffordshire Hoard’, modern technology was used alongside classic techniques to scan for ditch emplacements and other structural features (Dean et al. 2010). However, the tools of choice for the field archaeologist are still small, precision implements (Carver and Evans 2005), which are used so as not to disturb the archaeological record, in order to access individual items with maximum accuracy and minimum disturbance. This obviously depends somewhat on the skills and knowledge of the person operating those scrapers and toothbrushes.
Searching Google Bookshttps://support.google.com/books/partner/faq/3396243 (accessed on 29 September 2020).
There are 3.5 billion searches per day. Google Search Statistics (https://www.internetlivestats.com/google-search-statistics/ accessed on 29 September 2020). By 2022, this has risen to 7.5 billion.
Modifying the user experience and utilising Google facilities in any way other than intended is in contravention of Google’s rules of use, “All of our brand features are protected by applicable trademark, copyright and other intellectual property laws. If you would like to use any of our brand features on your website, in an ad, in an article or book, or reproduce them anywhere else, or in any other medium, you’ll need to receive permission from Google first. And please note that the user experience with all our products should never be altered” (https://www.google.com/permissions/ accessed on 29 September 2020).
Hoffmanwas a publisher. The article cited in Sutton and Griffiths (2018) is an editorial review of “Grundzügo der Societätsphilosophie. Von Franz Xaver Baader. Herausgegeben von Dr. Franz Hoffmann. Würzburg, 1837” (Basic Principle of the Social Philosophy. By Franz Xaver Baader. Published by Dr. Franz Hoffmann. Würzburg, 1837). Identifying individual editors is problematic for the period (Houghton 1972), so a better citation is Fraser’s Magazine (1841).
Coin means “to invent a new word or expression, or to use one in a particular way for the first time” (Cambridge Dictionary https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/coin/ accessed on 29 September 2020).
For the sake of accuracy, the term had already formed the title of his 1948 paper.
To ensure that this information was available to the first author, when they published the 2013 blog post on which Example 1 in Sutton and Griffiths (2018) was based, it is possible to inspect the history of edits made to each Wikipedia page. On 9 January 2013, the page said, “… Merton who is credited with coining the expression “self-fulfilling prophecy” and formalizing its structure and consequences… stems from the Thomas theorem… Merton took the concept a step further and applied it to recent social phenomena. In his book Social Theory and Social Structure…” (https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Self-fulfilling_prophecy&oldid=532098575 accessed on 29 September 2020).
The two additional instances (see Misconceptions about Mechanism) of “self-fulfilling prophecy” not detected using the method of Sutton and Griffiths (2018), employ the phrase in the same way, as a direct causality. In this case, there is suggestion of a psychosomatic influence, “Thus. suppose a case where there was a strong probability that death would ensue, were we to announce that probability in the patient’s hearing, the effect produced on his mind may convert probability into reality; the teacher’s words may become a self-fulfilling prophecy, and he become the agent of the patient’s death”. Watson (1842, p. 84). The second instance draws parallels between societal and personal collapse, warning against a growing weakness in the young men of Virginia, brought about by promiscuity and drugs (opium and laudanum), and lack of purpose, “The miseries and misfortunes of nations as of individuals are oftener the results of their own follies and crimes, than of the cruelties and oppressions of others. But we dislike to acknowledge our own errors, and are too prone to the hasty sad generalization, and mournful self-fulfilling prophecy, that depreciation and final degradation are the inevitable laws of social and national existence as death is of man’s mortal career”. Barbour (1854a, p. 21; 1854b, p. 522).
“A type of fallacy of reasoning wherein one misrepresents the argument of an opponent and thereby easily defeats the weakened version and claims victory over the original, stronger argument” (Aiken and Casey 2011).
Regarding the cannon called “Humpty Dumpty”, Sutton and Griffiths (2018) claimed to have challenged, “the apocryphal story of the siege of Colchester” but failed to do so because the Punchinello claim is false; hence, the traditional origins for the nursery rhyme stand. Sutton and Griffiths (2018) claimed to have, “found no evidence whatsoever in the historic literature record of a Royalist force cannon in the English civil war named Humpty Dumpty”, but this is another ‘straw man’ argument. The established narrative regarding the damaging of St. Mary’s Church’s tower is not that a cannon was called “Humpty Dumpty” (although that has since been conflated), but that a cannon’s fall from the roof inspired the poem. The account of that event on 15 June 1648, can be traced to a report printed in the same year (Anon 1648), and later expanded (Cromwell 1825). The diary entry by Samuel Pepys is also misrepresented: by claiming “IDD originally revealed that there was one used by the Parliamentary forces named Punchinello (see Pepys 1665, p. 1065)”, the paper inferred a continuity in narrative. However, Pepys’ note did not say the gun was being used in active combat, only that a gun was sited near Spitalfields (the Old Market has a Punchinello Gate named for its 2008 refurbishment) and that Pepys “by Captain Deane’s invitation, did go to see his new gun tryed”. Importantly, the diary entry was made for 20 April 1669, at least seventeen years after the end of the Civil War (the 1668–1669 year change is given on p. 990 of the same edition).
The concept of being bored (sensu “ennui”, literally “annoyance”, from “inodiare”, to keep in hatred) conjures a state of restlessness and irritable melancholy (that reached us alternatively via acedia and taedium vitae and perhaps shares some etymology with the Spanish “aburrir”—bore, weary, tire—and its precursor in Latin, “abhorrere”—averse, cf “abhor”). Hence, boredom, as a state of tedium and as a state that can be induced by others who “bore”, emerged out of the ethereality of Romanticism (e.g., Svendsen 2005, p. 28); Byron used “bores” and “bored” in 1823 (Paliwoda 2010; “bore” in this sense, is absent from Johnson’s (1827) Dictionary (Johnson and Walker 1827, p. 77), and only appears in terms of making holes, but a definition is given as “The pret.(erit tense) of bear”), while Spacks (1995, p. 13) proposed a first appearance of someone being “bored” in a 1768 letter, but dates “boredom” to 1864. Haladyn and Gardiner (2016, p. 5) stated “boredom” dates from the 1760s, however gave no source, but recalled it was mentioned within their reading (pers. comm. Oct-2019). Nonetheless, the new, aesthete Victorian outlook found a need to contrast “the interesting” with the abhorrence of encountering “the uninteresting”, an “experience without qualities” (Goodstein 2005). Therefore, parallel to ‘boredom’, the notion of ‘interesting’ arose, with a first appearance in print noted for 1775 (although a quick search to check revealed an earlier instance in Holwell (1765)).
Context is everything in determining semantics: “meaning in use” as the saying goes. Alternatively, “I seen a peanut stand, heard a rubber band…” (Wallace and Washington 1941).
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|2 *||Fraser’s Magazine—Volume 23||1841||1841|
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|4||The Sociology of Crime and Delinquency in Britain||1900||1971|
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|9||Social Education—Volume 26||1937||1962|
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Derry, J.F. The Role of Expertise in Discovery. Comment on Sutton and Griffiths (2018). Using Date Specific Searches on Google Books to Disconfirm Prior Origination Knowledge Claims for Particular Terms, Words, and Names. Social Sciences 7: 66. Soc. Sci. 2022, 11, 289. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070289
Derry JF. The Role of Expertise in Discovery. Comment on Sutton and Griffiths (2018). Using Date Specific Searches on Google Books to Disconfirm Prior Origination Knowledge Claims for Particular Terms, Words, and Names. Social Sciences 7: 66. Social Sciences. 2022; 11(7):289. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070289Chicago/Turabian Style
Derry, J. F. 2022. "The Role of Expertise in Discovery. Comment on Sutton and Griffiths (2018). Using Date Specific Searches on Google Books to Disconfirm Prior Origination Knowledge Claims for Particular Terms, Words, and Names. Social Sciences 7: 66" Social Sciences 11, no. 7: 289. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11070289