First-Wave COVID-19 Pandemic in Greece: The Role of Demographic, Social, and Geographical Factors in Life Satisfaction during Lockdown
2. Life Satisfaction during an Isolation Period
3. Data and Econometric Methodology
3.1. Data and Sampling
3.2. Variables Selection and Presumed Effects
3.3. Econometric Model and Model Specification
5. Discussion and Conclusions
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|Explanatory Variables||Label||Description||Data Sources|
|Gender||SEX||0 = Male||Own field research|
|1 = Female|
|Age||AGE||1 = 15–24||Own field research|
|2 = 25–39|
|3 = 40–54|
|4 = 55–64|
|5 = over 65|
|Urbanity||URB||0 = Urban||Own calculations|
|1 = Rural|
|Insularity||INS||0 = Mainland||Own calculations|
|1 = Island|
|Family size||FAM||Scale [0–100]||(Anastasiou and Duquenne 2021)|
|Psychosomatic situation||PSY||Scale [0–100]||(Anastasiou and Duquenne 2021)|
|Employment situation||EMP||Scale [0–100]||(Anastasiou and Duquenne 2021)|
|Socialization on the Internet||SOC||Scale [0–100]||(Anastasiou and Duquenne 2021)|
|Health concern||HEAL||Scale [0–100]||(Anastasiou and Duquenne 2021)|
|Changes in sleep patterns||SLEE||Scale [0–100]||(Anastasiou and Duquenne 2021)|
|Trust in the government and the media||GOV||Scale [0–100]||(Anastasiou and Duquenne 2021)|
|Effect||Model Fitting Criteria||Likelihood Ratio Tests|
|AIC of Reduced Model||BIC of Reduced Model||−2 Log Likelihood of Reduced Model||Chi-Square||df||Sig.|
|Socialization on the Internet||8398.137||8525.259||8358.137||13.214||2||0.001|
|Trust in the government and the media||8463.321||8590.443||8423.321||78.397||2||0.000|
|Effect||Model Fitting Criteria||Likelihood Ratio Tests|
|AIC of Reduced Model||BIC of Reduced Model||−2 Log Likelihood of Reduced Model||Chi-Square||df||Sig.|
|Socialization on the Internet||8234.700||8412.112||8178.700||10.010||2||0.007|
|Trust in the government and the media||8286.398||8463.811||8230.398||61.709||2||0.000|
|Changes in sleep patterns||8224.951||8402.363||8168.951||0.261||2||0.878|
Available online: https://www.businessmentor.gr/statistika-xrisis-internet-stin-ellada/ (accessed on 15 March 2021). Business Mentor, 2018 Internet Usage Statistics in Greece.
- Alexandrakis, Diogenis. 2017. The use of computers and Internet by older people and their intention to participate to ICT training programs. Greek Review of Educational-Scientific Issues 12: 64–77. (In Greek). [Google Scholar]
- Anastasiou, Evgenia, and Marie-Noelle Duquenne. 2020. Coronavirus in Society: The Geography of Social Distancing Measures in Greece. Demo News 41. [Google Scholar]
- Anastasiou, Evgenia, and Marie-Noelle Duquenne. 2021. What about the “Social Aspect of COVID”? Exploring the Determinants of Social Isolation on the Greek Population during the COVID-19 Lockdown. Social Sciences 10: 27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Audette, Andre, Sean Lam, Haley O’Connor, and Benjamin Radcliff. 2019. (E)Quality of Life: A Cross-National Analysis of the Effect of Gender Equality on Life Satisfaction. Journal of Happiness Studies 20: 2173–88. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Berg-Weger, Marla, and John Morley. 2020. Loneliness and social isolation in older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic: Implications for gerontological social work. The Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging 24: 456–58. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Bidzan-Bluma, Ilona, Monika Bidzan, Pawel Jurek, Leszek Bidzan, Jessica Knietzsch, M. Stueck, and M. Bidzan. 2020. A Polish and German Population Study of Quality of Life, Well-Being, and Life Satisfaction in Older Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Psychiatry 11: 1188. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Biroli, Pietro, Steven Bosworth, Marina Della Giusta, AmaliaDi Girolamo, S. Jaworska, and J. Vollen. 2020. Family Life in Lockdown. IZA Discussion Paper No. 13398. Bonn: Institute of Labor Economics. [Google Scholar]
- Blanchflower, David, and Andrew Oswald. 2000. Well-Being Over Time in Britain and the USA. Journal of Public Economics 88: 1359–86. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Brodeur, Aabel, David Gray, Anik Islam, and Suraiya Jabeen Bhuiyan. 2020. A Literature Review of the Economics of COVID-19. No. 13411, Discussion Paper Series. Available online: www.iza.org (accessed on 18 January 2021).
- Brooks, Samantha, Rebecca Webster, Louise Smith, Lisa Woodland, Simon Wesseley, Neil Greenberg, and G. Rubin. 2020. The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: Rapid review of the evidence. Lancet 395: 912–20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Cellini, Nicolla, Natale Canale, Giovanna Mioni, and Sebastiano Costa. 2020. Changes in sleep pattern, sense of time and digital media use during COVID-19 lockdown in Italy. Journal of Sleep Research 29: 1–5. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Chen, Qiang, Chen Min, Wei Zhang, Ge Wang, Xiaoyue Ma, and Richard Evans. 2020a. Unpacking the black box: How to promote citizen engagement through government social media during the COVID-19 crisis. Computers in Human Behavior 110: 106380. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chen, Qiongni, Mining Liang, Yamin Li, Jincai Guo, Dongxue Fei, Ling Wang, Li He, Caihua Sheng, Yiwen Cai, Xiaojuan Li, and et al. 2020b. Mental health care for medical staff in China during the COVID-19 outbreak. The Lancet Psychiatry 7: E15–E16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- CSO—Central Statistics Office. 2020. Social Impact of COVID-19 Survey April 2020—Well-Being. Available online: https://www.cso.ie/en/releasesandpublications/ep/p-sic19/socialimpactofcovid-19surveyapril2020/well-being/ (accessed on 1 April 2021).
- Curtin, Richard, Stanley Presser, and Eleanor Singer. 2000. The effects of response rate changes on the index of consumer sentiment. In Public Opinion Quarterly 64: 413–28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Dai, Wenjuan, Jieying Zhou, Guangming Li, Bin Zhang, and N. Ma. 2021. Maintaining normal sleep patterns, lifestyles and emotion during the COVID-19 pandemic: The stabilizing effect of daytime napping. Journal of Sleep Research, e13259. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Davillas, Apostolos, and Andrew Jones. 2020. The COVID-19 Pandemic and Its Impact on Inequality of Opportunity in Psychological Distress in the UK. No. 2020-07, ISER Working Paper. Essex: Institute for Social and Economic Research, Available online: https://econpapers.repec.org/RePEc:ese:iserwp:2020-07 (accessed on 25 January 2021).
- de Pedraza, Pablo, Martin Guzi, and Kea Tijdens. 2020. Life Dissatisfaction and Anxiety in COVID-19 Pandemic, EUR 30243 EN. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Deepa, Raj. 2020. Life Satisfaction during COVID-19. Journal of Human Ecology 71: 1–3. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Della Giusta, Marina, Sarah Louise Jewell, and U. S. Kambhampati. 2011. Gender and Life Satisfaction in the UK. Feminist Economics 17: 1–34. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Diener, Ed, Shigehiro Oishi, and L. Tay. 2018. Advances in subjective well-being research. Nature Human Behaviour 2: 253–60. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dymecka, Joanna, Rafal Gerymski, and Anna Machnik-Czerwik. 2021. How does stress affect our life satisfaction during COVID-19 pandemic? Moderating mediation analysis of sense of coherence and fear of coronavirus. Psychology, Health and Medicine. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- ELSTAT. 2014. Demographic and Social Characteristics of the Resident Population of Greece According to the 2011 Population—Housing Census Revision of 20/3/2014. Available online: https://www.statistics.gr/en/2011-census-pop-hous (accessed on 9 March 2021).
- ELSTAT. 2020. Employment Status and Unemployment Rate, Workforce (Monthly)/June 2020. Available online: https://www.statistics.gr/el/statistics/-/publication/SJO02/ (accessed on 9 March 2021).
- Eurofound. 2020. Living, Working and COVID-19 Dataset. Available online: https://www.eurofound.europa.eu/data/covid-19/quality-of-life (accessed on 9 March 2021).
- Frey, Bruno, and Alois Stutzer, eds. 2002. Happiness and Economics. Princeton: Princeton University Press, Available online: https://press.princeton.edu/books/paperback/9780691069982/happiness-and-economics (accessed on 15 March 2021).
- Frogoudaki, Alexandra, Dimitrios Farmakis, Dimitrios Tsounis, Sotiria Liori, Konstadinos Stamoulis, I. Ikonomidis, G. Filippatos, and J. Parissis. 2020. Telephone based survey in adults with congenital heart disease during COVID-19 pandemic. Cardiology Journal. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Galea, Sandro, Raina Merchant, and Nicole Lurie. 2020. The mental health consequences of COVID-19 and physical distancing: The need for prevention and early intervention. JAMA Internal Medicine 180: 817–18. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Gavalas, Vasilis. 2020. A threat to the humankind or much ado about nothing? Different perceptions of the coronavirus pandemic based on socio-demographic variables. Journal of Regional and Socio-Economic Issues 10: 21–39. [Google Scholar]
- Georgakopoulos, Thodoris. 2020. How Greeks Live in the Pandemic. Available online: https://www.dianeosis.org/2020/04/pos-zoyn-oi-ellines-stin-pandimia/ (accessed on 25 February 2021).
- Giannopoulou, Ioanna, and George Tsobanoglou. 2020. COVID-19 pandemic: Challenges and opportunities for the Greek health care system. Irish Journal of Psychological Medicine 37: 226–30. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Glowacz, Fabienne, and Emilie Schmits. 2020. Psychological distress during the COVID-19 lockdown: The young adults most at risk. Psychiatry Research 293: 1–4. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Independent SAGE. 2020. A Closer Look at Sweden’s Response to COVID-19 The Independent SAGE Report 15. The Independent Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies (SAGE). Available online: https://www.independentsage.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/09/Sweden_case-study-v2.pdf (accessed on 11 March 2021).
- Island Global Research. 2020. Wellbeing of Islanders Has Improved—More Than 50% of People Are Now “Thriving”. Available online: https://www.islandglobalresearch.com/Our-Reports (accessed on 9 March 2021).
- Joshanloo, Mohsen, and Veljko Jovanović. 2020. The relationship between gender and life satisfaction: Analysis across demographic groups and global regions. Archives of Women’s Mental Health 23: 331–38. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kivi, Marie, Isabelle Hansson, and P. Bjälkebring. 2021. Up and About: Older Adults’ Well-being During the COVID-19 Pandemic in a Swedish Longitudinal Study. Journals of Gerontology: Psychological Sciences 76: e4–e9. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kutubaeva, Rosa. 2019. Analysis of life satisfaction of the elderly population on the example of Sweden, Austria and Germany. Population and Economics 3: 102–16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Marelli, Sara, Alessandra Castelnuovo, A. Somma, V. Castronovo, S. Mombelli, D. Bottoni, C. Leitner, A. Fossati, and L. Ferini-Strambi. 2020. Impact of COVID-19 lockdown on sleep quality in university students and administration staff. Journal of Neurology 1: 8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- McCracken, Lance, F. Badinlou, M. Buhrman, and K. C. Brocki. 2020. Psychological impact of COVID-19 in the Swedish population: Depression, anxiety, and insomnia and their associations to risk and vulnerability factors. European Psychiatry 63. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Moore, Dana, and J. Tarnai. 2002. Evaluating nonresponse error in mail surveys. In Survey Nonresponse. Edited by Robert Groves, Don Dillman, John Eltinge and Roderick Little. Hoboken: John Wiley and Sons, pp. 197–211. Available online: https://scholar.google.com/scholar_lookup?title=SurveyNonresponseandpages=197-211andpublication_year=2002andauthor=Moore%2CD.L.andauthor=Tarnai%2CJ (accessed on 1 February 2021).
- Moyser, Melissa. 2020. Gender Differences in Mental Health during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Available online: www.statcan.gc.ca (accessed on 21 February 2021).
- National Public Health Organization. 2020. Epidemiological Surveillance Report of New Coronavirus Infection (COVID-19). Data as of 31 May 2020. Available online: https://eody.gov.gr/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/covid-gr-daily-report-20200531.pdf (accessed on 21 March 2021).
- OECD/European Commission. 2020. Cities in the World: A New Perspective on Urbanisation. Paris: OECD Publishing. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Oishi, Shigehiro, Ed Diener, and Richard Lucas. 2018. Subjective Well-Being: The Science of Happiness and Life Satisfaction. In The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology, 3rd ed. Edited by Charles Snyder, Shane Lopez, Lisa Edwards and Susana Marques. Oxford: Oxford University Press. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Parlapani, Eleni, Vasiliki Holeva, Panteleimon Voitsidis, A. Blekas, I. Gliatas, G. N. Porfyri, A. Golemis, K. Papadopoulou, A. Dimitriadou, A. F. Chatzigeorgiou, and et al. 2020a. Psychological and Behavioral Responses to the COVID-19 Pandemic in Greece. Frontiers in Psychiatry 11. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Parlapani, Eleni, Vasiliki Holeva, Vasiliki Aliki Nikopoulou, K. Sereslis, M. Athanasiadou, A. Godosidis, T. Stephanou, and I. Diakogiannis. 2020b. Intolerance of Uncertainty and Loneliness in Older Adults During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Psychiatry 11. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Peto, Julian, Alwan Nisreen, K. Godfrey, R. A. Burgesse, D. J. Hunter, E. Riboli, and P. Romeri. 2020. Universal weekly testing as the UK COVID-19 lockdown exit strategy. The Lancet 395: 1420–21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Pilcher, June, Douglas Ginter, and B. Sadowsky. 1997. Sleep quality versus sleep quantity: Relationships between sleep and measures of health, well-being and sleepiness in college students. Journal of Psychosomatic Research 42: 583–96. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Polizzi, Craig, Steven Jay Lynn, and A. Perry. 2020. Stress and Coping in the Time of COVID-19: Pathways to Resilience and Recovery. Clinical Neuropsychiatry 17: 59–62. [Google Scholar]
- Rambaree, Komalsingh, and Nessica Nässén. 2020. ‘The Swedish Strategy’ to COVID-19 Pandemic:Impact on Vulnerable and Marginalised Communities. The International Journal of Community and Social Development 2: 234–50. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Routen, Ash, Natalie Darko, A. Willis, J. Miksza, and K. Khunti. 2020. The impact of Covid-19 and lockdown measures on self-reported life satisfaction and social relationships does not differ by ethnicity. Journal of Public Health. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sakka, Sofia, Vasiliki Aliki Nikopoulou, E. Bonti, P. Tatsiopoulou, P. Karamouzi, A. Giazkoulidou, V. Tsipropoulou, E. Parlapani, V. Holeva, and I. Diakogiannis. 2020. Assessing test anxiety and resilience among Greek adolescents during COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Mind and Medical Sciences 7: 173–78. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Singer, Eleanor, John Van Hoewyk, and M. P. Maher. 2000. Experiments with incentives in telephone surveys. Public Opinion Quarterly 64: 171–88. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Smith, Ben, and Michelle Lim. 2020. How the COVID-19 pandemic is focusing attention on loneliness and social isolation. Public Health Research and Practice 30: e3022008. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Smith, Mathew, Lesley Steinman, and E. A. Casey. 2020. Combatting social isolation among older adults in the time of physical distancing: The COVID-19 social connectivity paradox. Front Public Health. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Stieger, Stefan. 2019. Facebook Usage and Life Satisfaction. Frontiers in Psychology 10: 2711. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Torre, André. 2020. The interest of social distancing. Preprint. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tsipropoulou, Virginia, Vasiliki Aliki Nikopoulou, V. Holeva, Z. Nasika, I. Diakogiannis, S. Sakka, S. Kostikidou, C. Varvara, E. Spyridopoulou, and E. Parlapani. 2020. Psychometric Properties of the Greek Version of FCV-19S. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tubadji, Annie, Frederic Boy, and Don J. Webber. 2020. COVID-19: Narrative Economics, Public Policy and Mental Health|VOX, CEPR Policy Portal. In Covid Economics Vetted and Real-Time Papers. No. 20; Covid Economics, Vetted and Real-Time Papers. Vol. 20, Available online: https://voxeu.org/article/covid-19-narrative-economics-public-policy-and-mental-health (accessed on 15 March 2021).
- UK Office for National Statistics. 2020. Personal Well-Being in the UK. Statistical Bulletin. Newport: UK Office for National Statistics. [Google Scholar]
- Usher, Kim, Navjot Bhullar, and Debra Jackson. 2020. Life in the pandemic: Social isolation and mental health. Journal of Clinical Nursing. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Vatavali, Fereniki, Zoi Gareiou, Fotini Kehagia, and Efthimios Zervas. 2020. Impact of COVID-19 on Urban Everyday Life in Greece. Perceptions, Experiences and Practices of the Active Population. Sustainability 12: 9410. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- White, Ross, and Catharina Van Der Boor. 2020. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and initial period of lockdown on the mental health and well-being of adults in the UK. BJPsych Open 6: e90. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Wu, Cary, Zhilei Shi, Rima Wilkes, Jiaji Wu, Z. Gong, N. He, Z. Xiao, X. Zhang, W. Lai, D. Zhou, and et al. 2021. Chinese Citizen Satisfaction with Government Performance during COVID-19. Journal of Contemporary China, 1–15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Xuefei, Ren. 2020. Pandemic and Lockdown: A Territorial Approach to COVID-19 in China, Italy and the United States. Eurasian Geography and Economics. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zixin, Lambert, and Senhu Wang. 2020. Prevalence and predictors of general psychiatric disorders and loneliness during COVID-19 in the United Kingdom. Psychiatry Research 291: 113267. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
|Covariates||Overall N (%)||Life Satisfaction during Lockdown|
|Overall N (%)||4256 (100)||1551(36.4)||1518(35.7)||1187(27.9)|
|Gender||Male||1249 (29.0)||493 (39.5)||428 (34.3)||328 (26.3)||0.029|
|Female||3056 (71.0)||1076 (35.2)||1106 (36.2)||874 (28.6)|
|Age||17–24||722 (17.0)||284 (39.3)||250 (34.6)||188 (26.0)||0.002|
|25–39||1954 (45.9)||720 (36.8)||720 (36.8)||514 (26.3)|
|40–54||1167 (27.4)||406 (34.8)||409 (35.0)||352 (30.2)|
|55–64||347 (8.2)||131 (37.8)||111 (32.0)||105 (30.3)|
|>65||66 (1.6)||10 (15.2)||28 (42.4)||28 (42.4)|
|Urbanity||Urban||3957 (93.9)||1450 (36.6)||1403 (35.5)||1104 (27.9)||0.607|
|Rural||259 (6.1)||88 (34.0)||99 (38.2)||72 (27.8)|
|Insularity||Mainland||3739 (88.7)||1350 (36.1)||1342 (35.9)||1047 (28.0)||0.357|
|Island||477 (11.3)||188 (39.4)||160 (33.5)||129 (27.0)|
|Not Satisfied with Life (Ref.)||Moderate Satisfaction||High Satisfaction|
|OR||p-Value||95% CI||OR||p-Value||95% CI|
|Socialization on the Internet||0.885||0.002||0.820–0.954||0.871||0.001||0.799–0.948|
|Trust in the government and the media||1.292||0.000||1.195–1.398||1.479||0.000||1.349–1.623|
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Anastasiou, E.; Duquenne, M.-N. First-Wave COVID-19 Pandemic in Greece: The Role of Demographic, Social, and Geographical Factors in Life Satisfaction during Lockdown. Soc. Sci. 2021, 10, 186. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060186
Anastasiou E, Duquenne M-N. First-Wave COVID-19 Pandemic in Greece: The Role of Demographic, Social, and Geographical Factors in Life Satisfaction during Lockdown. Social Sciences. 2021; 10(6):186. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060186Chicago/Turabian Style
Anastasiou, Evgenia, and Marie-Noelle Duquenne. 2021. "First-Wave COVID-19 Pandemic in Greece: The Role of Demographic, Social, and Geographical Factors in Life Satisfaction during Lockdown" Social Sciences 10, no. 6: 186. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci10060186