Since 9/11, de-radicalisation programs have become central to every country that deems itself at risk from terrorist attacks from global terror groups such as ISIS. Consequently, many countries have implemented programs to “inoculate their Muslim populations” and de-radicalise and disengage those Muslims deemed radicalised through securitisation and “moderate Islam”. Such programs aim to persuade individuals to renounce extremist ideas and violence and adopt moderate Islam, often state-orientated Islam, as is the case in Indonesia. The Indonesian government and civil society organisations have attempted to address radicalisation by setting up counter-radicalisation and de-radicalisation programs, with various degrees of success. The central thesis of this paper is that de-radicalisation is not achievable, and the current programs in Indonesia are not effective. The paper will first critically discuss the concepts of radicalisation and de-radicalisation/disengagement. Then, the paper will critically assess the Indonesian de-radicalisation programs by focusing on their shortcomings and unintended consequences, which result in the labelling and stigmatisation of former detainees and their families and hinder their successful de-radicalisation and reintegration. In the final section, the author will suggest that the Indonesian government and civil society organisations need to introduce humanitarian activities to improve their programs and reduce the chances of recidivism.
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited