Evaluation of Thermal Comfort in Traditional Houses in a Tropical Climate
3. Traditional Context of Bushehr
4. Passive Design Solutions in Tabib’s and Nozari’s Houses
- Yard: Yards have a close relation with the wind and is assumed to be a place for providing wind circulation. The central courtyard reduces air temperature at the internal spaces by replacing fresh and cool air from the outside. The courtyard, as a passive design strategy, creates indoor air velocity to the adjacent rooms by means of stack and cross ventilation.
- Shenashir: This is a half-closed space located in the front of the closed space and protects the closed backspace from direct sunlight. On the other hand, due to the building’s shadow on the outer surface, the temperature of the chamber reduces. External and internal Shenashir are shown in Table 2 and Figure 7.
- Openings: They play an important role in the hot-humid climate. The location of openings in a room is mostly related to the wind direction. In the architectural design of openings, it is important to determine the orientation of the openings in the building to provide appropriate light and air flow. In most of the cases, openings are exposed to the outside and orientated to the north and south.
- Terrace: This is a non-enclosed space covered and located on each individual level of the building. A terrace is surrounded by and covered with wooden blinds and sun straw. Terraces of the houses are half open space that are exposed to air and are cooler than other parts of the building. In addition, terraces bring favorable winds into the spaces of the building itself. Terraces are shown in the plans in Table 2 and Figure 8.
- Rooms: They are usually surrounded by the yard at different sides. The ratio of height to the width is not too large, normally 1:2 or 1:3. These ratios offer better ventilation in the yards as well as rooms in close proximity to the yard. The height of a room causes warm air to moved upward and reduces the room air temperature. In addition, building height is an element that provides wind pressure at the external surface building. As a result, a building can be naturally ventilated by the difference in pressure.
- Single-layer rooms: Rooms have two effective side: yard and surrounding streets sides. They have openings on both sides to provide wind circulation. Because of the importance of airflow, each space should have a window for air pressure in the suction area as well as another outgoing path. Thus, it is better to have outdoor space with two fronts in relation to the airflow. In general, natural ventilation in the buildings has three passive effects that are outlined in Figure 9.
- Stone: Coral reef rock with limestone is one of the basic materials in Bushehr. The stone is used in the foundation, walls, and in building facade because it has high resistance to moisture. These rocks are porous with very good thermal and acoustic insulation properties.
- Mud mortar and plaster: Clay is beaten and mixed with hydrated lime and water and used as mortar for building structures in building foundations and walls. The mortar is used in places where moisture and water penetration directly affects the building.
- Wood: Materials with low thermal conductivity like wood are used in hot-humid climates. The main problem is overheating and storing heat in this climate, which should not be transferred inside the building. For this reason, the best types of material is wood roofing. These materials can be used both for windows and doors. Wood releases heat slowly and transfers the gained heat smoothly. Thus, the wood surface remains relatively cool in the evening.
5.1. Sensors and Data Logger
5.2. Experimental Test Conditions
6. Results and Discussion
- The main factor in creating indoor thermal comfort in older buildings in hot-humid climates in summer is using natural ventilation. Wind-induced ventilation by the difference in pressure (cross ventilation) was the main reason for wind circulation inside the studied houses.
- It is convenient to reduce temperature by using a light color on the exterior parts of the buildings, which contributes to the mitigation of indoor air temperature.
- Using materials with low thermal conductivity, such as wood in the ceilings and windows in the buildings, improve thermal comfort.
- Using local materials (coral stone and gypsum) in the external and internal wall of the building reduces indoor temperature and provides acceptable conditions for occupants.
- Passive elements in the older architecture play an important role in providing thermal comfort. Based on a review of the literature and the quantitative results of this study, effective elements were identified. Using vertical and horizontal canopies, portico, and semi-open space, and external and interior Shenashir could significantly reduce indoor air temperature.
- External Shenashir creates shadow and controls the air flow to the interior. Also, it enables maximum use of the wind flow and the sea breeze to reduce the humidity in the building. Its function is based on the difference in air pressure. As the air pressure on the surfaces of Shenashir is higher than the indoor air pressure, the wind circulates smoothly in the studied rooms.
- The central courtyard is used in older houses during summer time. Based on the results, the temperature of the yard is lower than the ambient outdoor air temperature.
Conflicts of Interest
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|Month||Average Temperature (°C)||Min Temperature (°C)||Max Temperature (°C)||Average Relative Humidity (%)||Min Relative Humidity (%)||Max Relative Humidity (%)||Average Wind Speed (m/s)||Min Wind Speed (m/s)||Max Wind Speed (m/s)|
|Nozari’s Residence||Tabib’s Residence|
|PMV||−0.2 < PMV < 0.2||−0.5 < PMV < 0.5||−0.7 < PMV < 0.7|
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Shaeri, J.; Yaghoubi, M.; Aflaki, A.; Habibi, A. Evaluation of Thermal Comfort in Traditional Houses in a Tropical Climate. Buildings 2018, 8, 126. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8090126
Shaeri J, Yaghoubi M, Aflaki A, Habibi A. Evaluation of Thermal Comfort in Traditional Houses in a Tropical Climate. Buildings. 2018; 8(9):126. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8090126Chicago/Turabian Style
Shaeri, Jalil, Mahmood Yaghoubi, Ardalan Aflaki, and Amin Habibi. 2018. "Evaluation of Thermal Comfort in Traditional Houses in a Tropical Climate" Buildings 8, no. 9: 126. https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings8090126