- freely available
Laws 2018, 7(1), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/laws7010010
2. Models of Disability: A Built Environment Perspective
2.1. Charity Model of Disability
2.2. Medical Model of Disability
2.3. Social Model of Disability
2.4. Relational Model of Disability
2.5. Diversity Model of Disability
Bickenbach et al. (1999) explain that universalism reflects the view that ‘disablement is a universal human phenomenon’ rather than a minority one (p. 1179). A universal approach to disability shifts the focus from ‘special responses for special needs’ (where such needs are competing with those of the general population, Zola 1989 in (Bickenbach et al. 1999) to an approach that ‘accepts difference and widens the range of normal’ along an ability–disability continuum that can be applied to all humanity (Bickenbach et al. 1999, p. 1182).While the ‘social’ model is now universally accepted, it is argued that universalism as a model for theory development, research and advocacy serves disabled persons more effectively than a civil rights or ‘minority group’ approach.(p. 1173)
2.6. Human Rights Model of Disability
2.7. Disability Models: A Conundrum for Built Environment Practice?
3. Human Rights Legislation and the Built Environment: An Australian Viewpoint
3.1. Accessibility Legislation
3.1.1. At International Level: UNCRPD
3.1.2. Built Environment Accessibility Legislation: At National Level
- work, accommodation, education, access to premises, clubs and sport; and
- the provision of goods, facilities, services and land; and... (Australian Government 1992, p. 1)
4. Assessing Neighborhood Accessibility
5. Putting it All Together
5.1. Disability Models: Application in the Built Environment Context
5.2. Built Environment Accessibility Rights Instruments: Implementation Issues
5.3. Improving Neighborhood Accessibility: Measure
Conflicts of Interest
- Australian Building Codes Board (ABCB). 2016. National Construction Code NCC 2016 Building Code of Australia—Volume One (BCA); Canberra: The Australian Building Codes Board.
- Australian Building Codes Board (ABCB). 2017. Available online: http://www.abcb.gov.au/Connect/Articles/2017/11/Celebrating-21-years-of-the-performance-base-code (accessed on 29 November 2017).
- Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS). 2017. 4430.0—Disability, Ageing and Carers, Australia: Summary of Findings, 2015. Available online: http://www.abs.gov.au/ausstats/[email protected]/mf/4430.0 (accessed on 12 January 2018). [Google Scholar]
- Access Institute. 2017. Available online: https://accessinstitute.com.au/events/category/courses/ (accessed on 10 November 2017).
- African Child Policy Forum (ACPF). 2014. Access Denied Voices of Persons with Disabilities from Africa. Addis Ababa: The African Child Policy Forum. [Google Scholar]
- Australian Federation of Disability Organizations (AFDO). 2015. The National Disability Strategy: Five Years on; Melbourne: Australian Federation of Disability Organizations.
- Australia Law Reform Commission (ALRC). 2014. Available online: https://www.alrc.gov.au/publications/equality-capacity-and-disability-commonwealth-laws/legislative-and-regulatory-framework (accessed on 12 January 2018).
- American National Standards Institute (ANSI). 1961. A117.1 Accessible and Usable Buildings and Facilities. Washington: American National Standards Institute. [Google Scholar]
- Arbour-Nicitopoulos, Kelly P., and Kathleen Martin Ginis. 2011. Universal Accessibility of “Accessible” Fitness and Recreational Facilities for Persons with Mobility Disabilities. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ariffin, Affifah. 2016. Existing Buildings to Meet New Accessibility Requirements from 2017. Channel News Asia. Available online: https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/singapore/existing-buildings-to-meet-new-accessibility-requirements-from-2-7929208 (accessed on 11 October 2017).
- Accessibility and User Needs in Transport for Sustainable Urban Environments (AUNT-SUE). 2010. Available online: http://aunt-sue.lboro.ac.uk/toolkit/amelia/ (accessed on 10 November 2017).
- Australian Government. 1992. Disability Discrimination Act (DDA) 1992 (as Amended); Canberra: Office of Parliamentary Counsel.
- Australian Government. 2002. Disability Standards for Accessible Public Transport 2002 (as Amended); Canberra: Attorney-General‘s Department.
- Australian Government. 2010. Disability (Access to Premises—Buildings) Standards 2010 (as Amended); Canberra: Attorney-General‘s Department.
- Baris, Mehmet E., and Aysel Uslu. 2009. Accessibility for the disabled people to the built environment in Ankara, Turkey. African Journal of Agricultural Research 4: 801–14. [Google Scholar]
- Barnes, Colin, and Geof Mercer. 2003. Disability. Cambridge: Polity Press. [Google Scholar]
- Basha, Rozafa. 2015. Disability and Public Space—Case Studies of Prishtina and Prizren. International Journal of Contemporary Architecture “The New ARCH”, 2. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Berghs, Maria, Karl Atkin, Hilary Graham, Chris Hatton, and Carol Thomas. 2016. Chapter 3 Scoping models and theories of disability. In Implications for Public Health Research of Models and Theories of Disability: A Scoping Study and Evidence Synthesis. Southampton: NIHR Journals Library, Public Health Research, No. 4.8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bevan, Mark, and Karen Croucher. 2011. Lifetime Neighborhoods; London: Department for Communities and Local Government, ISBN 978-1-4098-2973-7.
- Bickenbach, Jerome E., Somnath Chatterji, Elizabeth M. Badley, and T. Bedirhan Ustun. 1999. Models of disablement, universalism and the international classification of impairments, disabilities and handicaps. Social Science & Medicine 48: 1173–87. [Google Scholar]
- Biocca, Luigi. 2014. ValeAS: Uno strumento ICT per valutare l’accessibilità e la sicurezza dell’ambiente costruito = ValeAS: An ICT tool to assess accessibility and safety of the built environment. TECHNE: Journal of Technology for Architecture &Environment, 132–39. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Boys, Jos. 2017. Introduction. In Disability, Space, Architecture: A Reader. Edited by Jos Boys. London and New York: Routledge, ISBN 978-1-315-56007-6 (ebk). [Google Scholar]
- Braddock, David L., and Susan L. Parish. 2001. Chapter 2: An Institutional History of Disability. In Handbook of Disability Studies, 2nd ed. Edited by Gary L. Albrecht, Seelman K and Michael Bury. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bruce, Anna. 2014. Which Entitlements and for Whom? The Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities and Its Ideological Antecedents. Ph.D. thesis, Lund University, Lund, Sweden. [Google Scholar]
- Buhler, Christian, Roland Borosch, and Gertrud Servos. 2015. Implementing UNCRPD—Barrier Free Access to Buildings in NRW—Database and Signet “NRWInklusiv”. In Assistive Technology. Edited by Cecilia Sik-Lanyi, Evert-Jan Hoogerwerf, Klaus Miesenberger and Peter Cudd. Amsterdam: IOS Press. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Calder, Allyson M., and Hilda Mulligan. 2014. Measurement properties of instruments that assess inclusive access to fitness and recreational sports centers: A systematic review. Disability and Health Journal 7: 26–35. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Carling-Jenkins, Rachel. 2014. Disability and Social Movements: Learning from Australian Experiences. Series: Interdisciplinary Disability Studies; Farnham: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
- Commonwealth of Australia. 2006. Disability Standards for Education 2005; Canberra: Attorney-General’s Department.
- Commonwealth of Australia. 2018. Rights of People with Disability. Available online: https://www.ag.gov.au/RightsAndProtections/HumanRights/Human-rights-scrutiny/PublicSectorGuidanceSheets/Pages/Rightsofpeoplewithdisability.aspx (accessed on 12 January 2018). [Google Scholar]
- Disability Advocacy Resource Unit (DARU). 2016. 3. Advocacy Issues. Available online: http://www.daru.org.au/disability-advocacy-by-the-numbers-statistics-from-july-2012-to-june-2016/3-advocacy-issues (accessed on 11 October 2017).
- Deane, Kirsten, and The National People with Disabilities and Carer Council. 2009. SHUT OUT: The Experience of People with Disabilities and their Families in Australia; Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia, ISBN 978-1-921380-54-9.
- Degener, Theresia. 2016. Disability in a Human Rights Context. Laws 5: 35. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Disability Rights Commission UK (DRC). 2004. Towards Access Standards: The Work of Local Access Groups in England and Wales. Available online: http://disability-studies.leeds.ac.uk/library/titles/T/ (accessed on 19 February 2018).
- Disability Rights Education & Defense Fund (DREDF). 2017. Available online: https://dredf.org/legal-advocacy/international-disability-rights/international-laws/ (accessed on 29 July 2017).
- Evans, Graeme. 2010. Accessibility, Urban Design and the Whole Journey Environment. Built Environment 35: 366–85. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Finkelstein, Vic. 1993. Disability: A social challenge or an administrative responsibility? In Disabling Barriers, Enabling Environments. Edited by John Swain, Vic Finkelstein, Sally French and Mike Oliver. London: Sage. [Google Scholar]
- Finkelstein, Vic. 2001. A Personal Journey into Disability Politics. Presentation Held in Independent Living Institute Library Collection. Available online: www.independentliving.org/docs3/finkelstein01a.html (accessed on 12 January 2018).
- Fisher, Jacob. 1953. Trends in Institutional Care of the Aged. The Bulletin. [Google Scholar]
- Goodley, Dan. 2011. Disability Studies: An Inter-Disciplinary Introduction. London: Sage. [Google Scholar]
- Green, Ralph J. 2011. An Introductory Theoretical and Methodological Framework for a Universal Mobility Index (UMI) to Quantify, Compare, and Longitudinally Track Equity of Access across the Built Environment. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hahn, Harlan. 2000. Accommodations and the ADA: Unreasonable Bias or Biased Reasoning. Berkeley Journal of Employment and Labour Law, 21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hamraie, Aimi. 2012. Proximate and Peripheral: Ableist Discourses of Space and Vulnerability surrounding the UNCRPD. In The Politics of Space and Place. Edited by Chiara Certoma, Nicola Clewer and Doug Elsey. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing, pp. 145–69, ISBN (10): 1-4438-4073-4. [Google Scholar]
- Hamraie, Aimi. 2016. Universal Design and the Problem of “Post-Disability” Ideology. Design and Culture. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Heath, David. 2017. Meeting the Housing Needs of Australia’s Booming Population. Available online: http://builtoffsite.com.au/issue-06/meeting-housing-needs-australias-booming-population/ (accessed on 19 February 2018).
- Higginbotham, Peter. 2018. The Workhouse. Available online: http://www.workhouses.org.uk/ (accessed on 19 February 2018).
- House of Commons Women and Equalities Committee (HoC WEC). 2017. Building for Equality: Disability and the Built Environment. Available online: www.parliament.uk/womenandequalities (accessed on 11 October 2017).
- Hunt, Paul. 1966. A Critical Condition. In Stigma: The Experience of Disabilitty. Edited by Paul Hunt. London: Geoffrey Chapman. [Google Scholar]
- International Disability Rights Monitor (IDRM). 2004. International Disability Rights Monitor Regional Report of the Americas. International Disability Network. Chicago: Center for International Rehabilitation. [Google Scholar]
- Institute for Human Centred Design (IHCD). 2016. Available online: http://adachecklist.org/checklist.html (accessed on 10 November 2017).
- Imrie, Rob. 1998. Oppression, Disability and Access in the Built Environment. In Disability Reader: Social Science Perspectives. Edited by Tom Shakespeare. London: Bloomsbury Pubishing PLC, ISBN13: 9780304339761. [Google Scholar]
- Imrie, Rob. 2000. Disabling Environments and the Geography of Access Policies and Practices. Disability & Society 15: 5–24. [Google Scholar]
- Imrie, Rob. 2015. Doing disability differently: An alternative handbook on architecture, dis/ability and designing for everyday life. Disability & Society 30: 486–88. [Google Scholar]
- Imrie, Rob F., and Peter Wells. 1993. Disablism, Planning, and the Built Environment. Environment and Planning C, Government and Policy 11: 213–31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jackson, Mary Ann, and Ralph J. Green. 2012. The Role of Access in Achieving Healthy Buildings: Universal Mobility Index. Paper presented at the 10th International Conference on Healthy Buildings, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, July 8–12. [Google Scholar]
- Jenks, Mike, and Nicola Demsey. 2007. Defining the Neighborhood: Challenges for Empirical Research. The Town Planning Review 78: 153–77. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kadir, Syazwani A., and Mariam Jamaludin. 2012. Users’ Satisfaction and Perception on Accessibility of Public Buildings in Putrajaya: Access Audit Study. Procedia—Social and Behavioral Sciences 50: 429–41. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lau, Wai Kin, Daniel Chi Wing Ho, and Yung Yau. 2015. Assessing the disability inclusiveness of University buildings in Hong Kong. International Journal of Strategic Property Management 20: 184–97. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Le Guen, Roxane. 1993. Residential Care for the Aged: An Overview of Government Policy from 1962 to 1993. Canberra: Parliamentary Research Service. [Google Scholar]
- Lid, Inger Marie. 2013. Developing the theoretical content in Universal Design. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research 15: 203–15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lid, Inger Marie. 2016. Implementing Universal Design in a Norwegian Context: Balancing Core Values and Practical Priorities. Available online: http://dsq-sds.org/article/view/3234/4303 (accessed on 19 February 2018).
- Mackett, Roger L, Helena Titheridge, and Kamal Achuthan. 2012. Consulting Older and Disabled People about their Local Accessibility Needs. Paper presented at the International Conference on Mobility and Transport for Elderly and Disabled Persons (TRANSED 2012), Delhi, India, September 17–21. [Google Scholar]
- McSherry, Bernadette. 2014. Australia’s International Human Rights Obligations; Paper prepared for Mental Health Commission of NSW to support the development of the Strategic Plan for Mental Health in NSW 2014–2024; Gladesville: Mental Health Commission of NSW.
- Mindell, Jenny S., Paulo R. Anciaes, Ashley Dhanani, Jemima Stockton, Peter Jones, Muki Haklay, Nora Groce, Shaun Scholes, and Laura Vaughan. 2017. Using triangulation to assess a suite of tools to measure community severance. Journal of Transport Geography 60: 119–29. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Nankervis, Karen. 2006. Conceptions of disability. In Community Disability Services: An Evidence-Based Approach to Practice. Edited by Ian Dempsey and Karen Nankervis. Sydney: UNSW Press, pp. 3–26. [Google Scholar]
- NCHPAD. 2017. Available online: https://www.nchpad.org/426/2254/AIMFREE~Manuals (accessed on 10 November 2017).
- Nirje, Bengt. 1994. The Normalization Principle and Its Human Management Implications*. SRV-VRS: The International Social Role Valorization Journal 1: 2. First published 1969. [Google Scholar]
- Norwegian Ministry of Children, Equality and Social Inclusion (NMCEandSI). 2016. The Government’s Action Plan for Universal Design 2015–2019; Oslo: Norwegian Ministry of Children, Equality and Social Inclusion.
- New Zealand Human Rights Commission (NZHRC). 2012. Better Design and Buildings for Everyone: Disabled People’s Rights and the Built Environment Book 1 of 3. Auckland: Human Rights Commission New Zealand, ISBN 978-0-478-35631-1 (Online). [Google Scholar]
- Oliver, Mike. 1983. Social Work with Disabled People. Basingstoke: MacMillan. [Google Scholar]
- Oliver, Mike. 1987. Re-Defining Disability: Some Issues for Research. Research, Policy and Planning 5: 9–13. [Google Scholar]
- Oliver, Mike. 1992. Changing the social relations of research production? Disability Handicap & Society 7: 101–15. [Google Scholar]
- Oliver, Mike. 1998. Theories in Health Care and Research: Theories of Disability in Health Practice and Research. British Medical Journal 317: 1446–49. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Oliver, Mike. 2013. The social model of disability: Thirty years on. Disability & Society, 28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Oliver, Melody, Suzanne Mavoa, Hannah Badland, Karl Parker, Phil Donovan, Robin A. Kearns, En-Yi Lin, and Karen Witten. 2015. Associations between the neighborhood built environment and out of school physical activity and active travel: An examination from the Kids in the City study. Health & Place 36: 57–64. [Google Scholar]
- Palacio, Agustina, and Javier Romanach. 2006. El modelo de la diversidad: la bioética y los derechos humanos como herramientas para alcanzar la plena dignidad en la diversidad funcional. Available online: https://e-archivo.uc3m.es/handle/10016/9899 (accessed on 17 February 2018).
- Parsons, Talcott. 1951. The Social System. E-book produced by Social Theory in collaboration with Univerity of Chicago. Glencoe: Free Press. [Google Scholar]
- Peace, Sheila M. 2003. The development of residential and nursing home care in the United Kingdom. In End of Life in Care Homes: A Palliative Approach. Edited by Jeanne Samson Katz and Sheila M. Peace. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 15–42. [Google Scholar]
- Pereira Martins, Kaisy, Tatiana Ferreira da Costa, Thayris Mariano de Medeiros, Maria das Graças Melo Fernandes, Inácia Sátiro Xavier de França, and Kátia Nêyla de Freitas Macêdo Costa. 2016. Internal structure of Family Health Units: Access for people with disabilities. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva 21: 3153–60. [Google Scholar]
- Pfeiffer, David. 2001. The conceptualization of disability. In Exploring Theories and Expanding Methodologies: Where We Are and Where We Need to Go (Research in Social Science and Disability, Volume 2). Edited by Sharon N. Barnartt and Barbara M. Altman. Bingley: Emerald Group Publishing Limited, pp. 29–52. [Google Scholar]
- Pineda, Victor S., and Benjamin Dard. 2016. The Inclusion Imperative: Towards Disability-inclusive and Accessible Urban Development. Available online: http://www.ohchr.org/Documents/Issues/Housing/Disabilities/CivilSociety/CBM-TheInclusionImperative.pdf (accessed on 19 February 2018).
- Pinnegar, Simon, Jane Marceau, and Bill Randolph. 2008. Innovation and the City: Challenges for the Built Environment Industry. Report prepared for Department of Innovation, Industry, Science and Research by City Future Research Centre. Sydney: UNSW, ISBN 9781740440974 (pbk.). [Google Scholar]
- Quinn, Gerard, Theresia Degener, Anna Bruce, Christine Burke, Joshua Castellino, Padraic Kenna, Ursula Kilkelly, and Shivaun Quinlivan. 2002. Human Rights and Disability the Current Use and Future Potential of United Nations Human Rights Instruments in the Context of Disability. Report, to the United Nations. New York and Geneva: United Nations. [Google Scholar]
- Rains, Madeleine, and Rowena Butland. 2012. Lifting the Barriers: Planning for Increased Mobility and Accessibility through the Adelaide CBD. Paper presented at State of Australian Cities National Conference, Sydney, Australia, November 26–29. [Google Scholar]
- Rimmer, James H., Barth Riley, Edward Wang, and Amy Rauworth. 2005. Accessibility of Health Clubs for People with Mobility Disabilities and Visual Impairments. American Journal of Public Health 95: 2022–28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Rimmer, James H., Sangeetha Padalabalanarayanan, Laurie A. Malone, and Tapan Mehta. 2017. Fitness facilities still lack accessibility for people with disabilities. Disability and Health Journal, 10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Rotarou, Elena S., and Dikaios Sakellariou. 2017. Inequalities in access to health care for people with disabilities in Chile: The limits of universal health coverage. Critical Public Health. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sander, Marie-Sylvie, Marie-Christine Bournot, Françoise Lelièvre, and Anne Tallec. 2005. Les personnes ayant un handicap visuel Les apports de l’enquête Handicaps-Incapacités–Dépendance. Available online: https://www.epsilon.insee.fr/jspui/bitstream/1/12824/1/er416.pdf (accessed on 17 February 2018).
- Sarma, J. 2016. Accessibility to the built environment in Delhi, India: Understanding the experience of disablement through the intersectionality paradigm. Knowledge Management for Development Journal 11: 104–21. [Google Scholar]
- Sawadrsi, Antika. 2011. Embodiment in the disabling built-environment: An experience of daily life. FORUM Ejournal 10: 53–66. [Google Scholar]
- Schindler, Sarah. 2015. Architectural Exclusion: Discrimination and Segregation through Physical Design of the Built Environment. The Yale Law Journal 124: 1836–2201. Available online: https://www.yalelawjournal.org/article/architectural-exclusion (accessed on 17 February 2018). [Google Scholar]
- Scotch, Richard K. 2000. Models of Disability and the Americans with Disabilities Act. Berkeley Journal of Employment & Labor Law, 21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Scotch, Richard K., and Kay Shriner. 1997. Disability as Human Variation: Implications for Policy. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 549: 148–59. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Shriner, Kay, and Richard K. Scotch. 2001. Disability and Institutional Change: A Human Variation Perspective on Overcoming Oppression. Journal of Disability Policy Studies 12: 100–6. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Soder, Marten. 2009. Tensions, perspectives and themes in disability studies. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research 11: 67–81. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Stainton, Tim. 2017. Intellectual Disability, Oppression and Difference. In Countering Discrimination in Social Work. Edited by Bogdan Lesnik. London and New York: Routledge. First published 1998. [Google Scholar]
- Stephens, Lindsay, Karen Spalding, Henna Aslam, Helen Scott, Sue Ruddick, Nancy L. Young, and Patricia McKeever. 2017. Inaccessible childhoods: Evaluating accessibility in homes, schools and neighborhoods with disabled children. Children’s Geographies, 15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- The Guardian. 2017. Available online: https://www.theguardian.com/global-development-professionals-network/ng-interactive/2016/jun/22/disability-rights-around-the-world-from-1944-to-the-present-day (accessed on 10 November 2017).
- Tudzi, Eric P., John Bugri, and Anthony Danso. 2017. Towards Accessible Built Environments in Universities in Ghana: An Approach to Inclusiveness Assessment. Disability, CBR & Inclusive Development, 28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- United Nations. 2006. Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities—Articles. Available online: https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/convention-on-the-rights-of-persons-with-disabilities/convention-on-the-rights-of-persons-with-disabilities-2.html (accessed on 10 November 2017).
- United Nations (UN). 2008. Available online: https://www.un.org/development/desa/disabilities/backgrounder-disability-treaty-closes-a-gap-in-protecting-human-rights.html (accessed on 10 November 2017).
- United Nations (UN). 2017. Available online: http://www.un.org/disabilities/documents/maps/enablemap.jpg (accessed on 10 November 2017).
- Civil Rights Division of the United States Department of Justice (USDoJ CRD). 2008. Available online: https://www.ada.gov/pcatoolkit/abouttoolkit.htm (accessed on 10 November 2017).
- United States Department of Justice Civil Rights Division (USDoJ CRD). 2017. Information and Technical Assistance on the Americans with Disabilities Act (Enforcement). Available online: https://www.ada.gov/enforce_current.htm (accessed on 11 October 2017). [Google Scholar]
- Wee, Judy, Julie Babinard, Christopher Bennett, and Christine McMahon. 2015. Improving Accessibility to People with Disabilities in the Pacific. Sydney: PRIF Coordination Office (PCO). [Google Scholar]
- West, Raelene. 2012. What Do We Mean by Support? The Receipt of Disability Services and Compensation for People with a Spinal Cord Injury (SCI) in Victoria. Ph.D. thesis, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia. [Google Scholar]
- Wolfensberger, Wolf. 1969. The Origin and Nature of Our Institutional Models. In Changing Patterns in Residential Services for the Mentally Retarded; Washington: President’s Committee on Mental Retardation. Available online: http://www.disabilitymuseum.org/dhm/lib/detail.html?id=1909&page=all (accessed on 12 February 2018). [Google Scholar]
- Zajac, Adam P. 2013. Public Space That Excludes: A Case Study of Warsaw. Paper presented at the International RC21 Conference 2013, Berlin, Germany, August 29–31. [Google Scholar]
- Zola, Irving K. 1993. Disability Statistics, What We Count and What It Tells Us A Personal and Political Analysis. Journal of Disability Policy Studies, 4. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Indicative of the terminology used at the time (Wolfensberger 1969).
For example: http://usicd.org/index.cfm/crpd, https://www.hrw.org/news/2013/07/26/us-ratify-disability-rights-treaty, http://www.catholicethics.com/forum-submissions/the-us-fails-to-ratify-the-un-convention-on-the-rights-of-persons-with-disabilities, https://www.ahead.org/CRPD/Myths%20and%20Facts, https://www.huffingtonpost.com/2013/10/08/ada-violations_n_4064270.html, https://dredf.org/2017/10/04/ada-under-attack-tell-house-representatives-oppose-h-r-620/, https://dredf.org/web-log/2017/06/23/no-roll-backs-civil-rights-past-plaintiff-opposing-h-r-620-ada-notification-act/.
There is much confusion around the difference between Australian Standards and Disability Standards. In the built environment accessibility context, the former are, effectively, merely guidelines and the latter are indeed legislation.
See, for example: Access Audit Tool, Lewis, McQuade, and Thomas, early 2000s; the oft-referenced 2009 Ankara work of Baris and Uslu; International Transportation Accessibility Survey (ITAS), 2010 International Conference on Mobility and Transport for Elderly and Disabled Persons; A Methodology for Enhancing Life by Increasing Accessibility (AMELIA-AUNT-SUE), (Evans 2010; AUNT-SUE 2010; Mackett et al. 2012); and Rating of Accessibility and Safety (ValeAS), (Biocca 2014).
|Regions||‘Anglophone’ countries, Europe, Asia Pacific, Africa, Latin America|
|Countries||UK, New Zealand, Canada, USA, Australia; France, Turkey, Slovenia, Poland, Germany, Kosovo, Sweden, Norway; Malaysia, Thailand, Japan, China, India, Singapore, Pacific Islands; Ethiopia, Sierra Leone, Uganda, Zambia, Egypt, Ghana; Mexico, Belize, Honduras, Suriname, Brazil, Chile|
|References||(HoC WEC 2017; NZHRC 2012; Stephens et al. 2017; USDoJ CRD 2017; AFDO 2015; Rains and Butland 2012; DARU 2016; Sander et al. 2005; Baris and Uslu 2009; Zajac 2013; Basha 2015; NMCEandSI 2016; Sawadrsi 2011; Sarma 2016; Ariffin 2016; Wee et al. 2015; ACPF 2014; Tudzi et al. 2017; IDRM 2004; Pereira Martins et al. 2016; Rotarou and Sakellaniou 2017)|
© 2018 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).