“At the beginning of the 21st century the conditio humana cannot be understood nationally or locally but only globally. ‘Globalization’ is a non-linear, dialectic process in which the global and the local do not exist as cultural polarities but as combined and mutually implicating principles. These processes involve not only interconnections across boundaries but transform the quality of the social and the political inside nation-state societies. This is what I define as ‘cosmopolitanization’: cosmopolitanization means internal globalization, globalization from within the national societies. This transforms everyday consciousness and identities significantly. Issues of global concern are becoming part of the everyday local experiences and the ‘moral life-worlds’ of the people.”—Ulrich Beck, The Cosmopolitan Society and Its Enemies (, p. 17).
2. Which Cosmopolitanization?
3. Top-Down Cosmopolitanization of Feminism: Representation and International Law
3.1. Descriptive Representation
3.2. Substantive Representation
3.3. International Law
4. Bottom-Up Cosmopolitanization of Feminism: The Role of Civil Society
4.1. Feminist Theory
4.2. Cyberfeminism and Online Social Networks
4.3. The NGOization of Feminism
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) aim to build on (past) achievements to ensure that there is an end to discrimination against women and girls everywhere. There are still gross inequalities in access to paid employment in some regions and significant gaps between men and women in the labor market. Sexual violence and exploitation, the unequal division of unpaid care and domestic work and discrimination in public decision making, all remain huge barriers.
Ensuring universal access to sexual and reproductive health and affording women equal rights to economic resources such as land and property, are vital targets to realizing this goal. There are now more women in public office than ever before but encouraging more women leaders across all regions will help strengthen policies and legislation for greater gender equality.
5. Conclusions: Cosmopolitanism and Feminism—A Common Future
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- 3Only elected heads of state have been taken into account.
- 4Cf. also: .
- 5The convention’s program of action for equality is spelled out in 14 articles. The convention covers three aspects of the status of women. It lists in detail the civic rights and legal status of women but it also—and this is what distinguishes it from other human rights treaties—relates to procreation and the impact of cultural factors on gender relations. The implementation of the convention is supervised by the Committee for the Elimination of Discrimination against Women. The committee’s mandate and how it is to follow up the implementation of the convention are defined in its articles 17 to 30. The committee is made up of 23 experts nominated by their governments and elected by member countries on the basis of possessing “high moral authority and being eminently competent in the domain to which the Convention applies.” At least every four years, the member countries must present to the committee a report on the measures they have adopted for implementing the provisions of the convention. At the annual session of the committee, its members analyze the national reports together with representatives from each government and study with them the domains in which the country concerned should introduce new measures. The committee also issues general recommendations on questions related to the elimination of discrimination against women. To date (2016), 189 of the 193 existing countries have ratified the convention. The United States and Palau have signed but not ratified the treaty. The Holy See, Iran, Somalia, Sudan and Tonga are not signatories to CEDAW .
|Regions||Percentage of Women 1 January 1997||Percentage of Women 1 December 2015|
|Europe + Nordic countries||13.8%||25.7%|
|Europe without Nordic countries||12.3%||24.2%|
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