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Metals 2019, 9(3), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9030319

Global and High-Resolution Damage Quantification in Dual-Phase Steel Bending Samples with Varying Stress States

1
Institute of forming technology and lightweight components, TU Dortmund University, Baroper Str. 303, 44227 Dortmund, Germany
2
Institute of physical metallurgy and metal physics, RWTH Aachen, Kopernikusstr. 14, 52056 Aachen, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2019 / Revised: 1 March 2019 / Accepted: 6 March 2019 / Published: 12 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Material and Process Design for Lightweight Structures)
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Abstract

In a variety of modern, multi-phase steels, damage evolves during plastic deformation in the form of the nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids in the microstructure. These microscopic sites play a vital role in the evolution of the materials’ mechanical properties, and therefore the later performance of bent products, even without having yet led to macroscopic cracking. However, the characterization and quantification of these diminutive sites is complex and time-consuming, especially when areas large enough to be statistically relevant for a complete bent product are considered. Here, we propose two possible solutions to this problem: an advanced, SEM-based method for high-resolution, large-area imaging, and an integral approach for calculating the overall void volume fraction by means of density measurement. These are applied for two bending processes, conventional air bending and radial stress superposed bending (RSS bending), to investigate and compare the strain- and stress-state dependent void evolution. RSS bending reduces the stress triaxiality during forming, which is found to diminish the overall formation of damage sites and their growth by the complimentary characterization approaches of high-resolution SEM and global density measurements. View Full-Text
Keywords: damage; characterization; automated void recognition; density; bending; stress superposition damage; characterization; automated void recognition; density; bending; stress superposition
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Meya, R.; Kusche, C.F.; Löbbe, C.; Al-Samman, T.; Korte-Kerzel, S.; Tekkaya, A.E. Global and High-Resolution Damage Quantification in Dual-Phase Steel Bending Samples with Varying Stress States. Metals 2019, 9, 319.

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