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Metals 2019, 9(3), 283;

Performance of Plunge Depth Control Methods During Friction Stir Welding

Joining Research Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon 21999, Korea
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea
Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Portland State University, Portland, OR 97201, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 February 2019 / Revised: 26 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 2 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction Stir Welding and Processing in Alloy Manufacturing)
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Friction stir welding is a preferred solid state welding process for Al/Fe joints, and in friction stir lap welding, the plunge depth is the most critical parameter for joint strength. We compared three plunge depth control methods, namely conventional position control, offset position control, and deflection compensation control in the friction stir lap welding of 3 mm-thick Al 5083-O alloy over 1.2 mm-thick DP 590 steel. The desired plunge depth was 0.2 mm into the steel sheet. However, the pin did not reach the steel surface under conventional position control due to deflection of the vertical axis of the welding system. In offset position control, an additional offset of 0.35 mm could achieve the desired plunge depth with considerable accuracy. Nevertheless, a gradual increase of the plunge depth along the longitudinal direction was unavoidable, due to an in-situ decrease of the material yield strengths. In deflection compensation control, the deflection is estimated by the coaxially measured plunging force and the force-deflection relationship, and then corrected by feedback control. Thus, the plunge depth is stabilized along the longitudinal direction and is precisely controlled with a 3.3-μm standard deviation of error during the tool traverse phase. There is also a consistent bias of 32 μm caused by the resolution of the measuring system, and it can be easily calibrated in the feedback control system. View Full-Text
Keywords: Al/Fe dissimilar joining; friction stir welding; plunge depth control; offset position control; deflection compensation control Al/Fe dissimilar joining; friction stir welding; plunge depth control; offset position control; deflection compensation control

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Yoon, J.; Kim, C.; Rhee, S. Performance of Plunge Depth Control Methods During Friction Stir Welding. Metals 2019, 9, 283.

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