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Suppressing the Use of Critical Raw Materials in Joining of AISI 304 Stainless Steel Using Activated Tungsten Inert Gas Welding

Faculty of Technical Sciences, University of Novi Sad, Trg Dositeja Obradovica 6, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
Faculty of Special Technology, Alexander Dubček University of Trenčín, Študentská 2, 911 50 Trenčín, Slovakia
Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bulevar Cara Lazara 1, 21000 Novi Sad, Serbia
School of Aerospace, Transport and Manufacturing, Cranfield University, Bedfordshire MK43 0AL, UK
Łukasiewicz Research Network-Institute of Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Wroclawska 37a, 30-011 Krakow, Poland
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2019, 9(11), 1187;
Received: 23 September 2019 / Revised: 19 October 2019 / Accepted: 21 October 2019 / Published: 4 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metal Oxides)
The aim of this study was to study the influence of TiO2 coating for its efficacy during the activated-tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding and to suppress the use of consumables that are rich in critical raw materials. Post-welding penetration depth, particle size distribution, microstructure, and microhardness of welded samples were assessed. Based on these results, it was found that there is no direct correlation between the weld metal surface area and the coating. The particle size in the coating, although, seemed to have played an important role, e.g., nanoparticles resulted in an increased penetration depth and depth/width (D/W) ratio as opposed to the submicron-sized particles. The most optimal welding condition resulted when a mixture of submicron-sized and nanometric-sized particles were used. It was demonstrated by the Zeta analyser results that the micron particles rub the nanoparticles due to mechanical friction resulting in smaller oxide particle formation in the coating. Finally, the presence of Marangoni convection in TIG and reversed Marangoni convection in the activated TIG (A-TIG) process were proven by means of the microstructure analysis and measurement, which were found to be positively correlated. View Full-Text
Keywords: A-TIG welding; particle size; metal flow; penetration depth A-TIG welding; particle size; metal flow; penetration depth
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MDPI and ACS Style

Balos, S.; Dramicanin, M.; Janjatovic, P.; Zabunov, I.; Pilic, B.; Goel, S.; Szutkowska, M. Suppressing the Use of Critical Raw Materials in Joining of AISI 304 Stainless Steel Using Activated Tungsten Inert Gas Welding. Metals 2019, 9, 1187.

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