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Open AccessArticle

Process-Structure-Properties-Performance Modeling for Selective Laser Melting

1
Multiscale Materials Modeling Group, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., 02150 Espoo, Finland
2
Department of Physics and Centre for the Physics of Materials, McGill University, Montreal, QC H3C-1K3, Canada
3
Department of Computer Science, Aalto University, 02150 Espoo, Finland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2019, 9(11), 1138; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9111138
Received: 29 September 2019 / Revised: 15 October 2019 / Accepted: 17 October 2019 / Published: 24 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Simulation Technologies of Metallurgical Processing)
Selective laser melting (SLM) is a promising manufacturing technique where the part design, from performance and properties process control and alloying, can be accelerated with integrated computational materials engineering (ICME). This paper demonstrates a process-structure-properties-performance modeling framework for SLM. For powder-bed scale melt pool modeling, we present a diffuse-interface multiphase computational fluid dynamics model which couples Navier–Stokes, Cahn–Hilliard, and heat-transfer equations. A computationally efficient large-scale heat-transfer model is used to describe the temperature evolution in larger volumes. Phase field modeling is used to demonstrate how epitaxial growth of Ti-6-4 can be interrupted with inoculants to obtain an equiaxed polycrystalline structure. These structures are enriched with a synthetic lath martensite substructure, and their micromechanical response are investigated with a crystal plasticity model. The fatigue performance of these structures are analyzed, with spherical porelike defects and high-aspect-ratio cracklike defects incorporated, and a cycle-amplitude fatigue graph is produced to quantify the fatigue behavior of the structures. The simulated fatigue life presents trends consistent with the literature in terms of high cycle and low cycle fatigue, and the role of defects in dominating the respective performance of the produced SLM structures. The proposed ICME workflow emphasizes the possibilities arising from the vast design space exploitable with respect to manufacturing systems, powders, respective alloy chemistries, and microstructures. By digitalizing the whole workflow and enabling a thorough and detailed virtual evaluation of the causal relationships, the promise of product-targeted materials and solutions for metal additive manufacturing becomes closer to practical engineering application. View Full-Text
Keywords: additive manufacturing; selective laser melting; phase field modeling; heat-transfer modeling; micromechanical modeling; crystal plasticity; integrated computational materials engineering additive manufacturing; selective laser melting; phase field modeling; heat-transfer modeling; micromechanical modeling; crystal plasticity; integrated computational materials engineering
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MDPI and ACS Style

Pinomaa, T.; Yashchuk, I.; Lindroos, M.; Andersson, T.; Provatas, N.; Laukkanen, A. Process-Structure-Properties-Performance Modeling for Selective Laser Melting. Metals 2019, 9, 1138.

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