Next Article in Journal
Stochastic Material Point Method for Analysis in Non-Linear Dynamics of Metals
Previous Article in Journal
Influence of Al on Evolution of the Inclusions in Ti-Bearing Steel with Ca Treatment
Previous Article in Special Issue
Effect of T6 Heat Treatment on Microstructure and Hardness of Nanosized Al2O3 Reinforced 7075 Aluminum Matrix Composites
Article Menu
Issue 1 (January) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Metals 2019, 9(1), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/met9010105

Precipitation Strengthening in Ni–Cu Alloys Fabricated Using Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing Technology

1
School of Mechanical, Materials, Mechatronics and Biomedical Engineering, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong, NSW 2500, Australia
2
Defence Materials Technology Centre, Hawthorn, VIC 3122, Australia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 December 2018 / Revised: 18 January 2019 / Accepted: 18 January 2019 / Published: 21 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Strengthening Mechanisms in Metallic Materials)
Full-Text   |   PDF [5571 KB, uploaded 21 January 2019]   |  

Abstract

Two Ni–Cu alloys, Monel K500 and FM60, with various contents of Ti, Mn, Al, Fe and C were deposited in the form of plates on a metal base plate using wire arc additive manufacturing technology. Three deposition speeds have been applied: 300, 400 and 500 mm/min. To modify the as-welded microstructure and properties, the deposited walls/plates have been subjected to two heat treatment procedures: annealing at 1100 °C for 15 min, slow cooling to 610 °C, ageing at this temperature for 8 h and either (i) air cooling to room temperature or (ii) slow cooling to 480 °C, ageing at this temperature for 8 h and air cooling to room temperature. The microstructure characterisation and mechanical properties testing have been conducted for each of the 18 chemistry/processing conditions. The dependences of the precipitate’s parameters (size, number density and chemistry), mechanical properties and wear resistance on the alloy composition, deposition speed and heat treatment have been obtained. In Monel K500, the precipitates were mainly of the TiC/TiCN type, and in FM60, they were of the MnS and TiAlMgO types. Monel K500 has shown higher hardness, strength, toughness and wear resistance in all studied conditions. Ageing at 610 °C improved properties in both alloys following the precipitation of new particles. Ageing at 480 °C could result in a properties loss if the particle coarsening (decrease in number density) took place. View Full-Text
Keywords: Ni–Cu alloys; wire arc additive manufacturing; microstructure characterisation; mechanical properties; wear resistance Ni–Cu alloys; wire arc additive manufacturing; microstructure characterisation; mechanical properties; wear resistance
Figures

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Marenych, O.; Kostryzhev, A.; Shen, C.; Pan, Z.; Li, H.; van Duin, S. Precipitation Strengthening in Ni–Cu Alloys Fabricated Using Wire Arc Additive Manufacturing Technology. Metals 2019, 9, 105.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Metals EISSN 2075-4701 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top