Next Article in Journal
Microstructure and Fabrication of Cu-Pb-Sn/Q235 Laminated Composite by Semi-Solid Rolling
Next Article in Special Issue
Sustainable Hydrometallurgical Recovery of Valuable Elements from Spent Nickel–Metal Hydride HEV Batteries
Previous Article in Journal
Barkhausen Noise Assessment of the Surface Conditions Due to Deep Hole Drilling and Their Influence on the Fatigue Behaviour of AISI 4140
Article Menu
Issue 9 (September) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Metals 2018, 8(9), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8090721

Leaching and Recovery of Rare-Earth Elements from Neodymium Magnet Waste Using Organic Acids

1
Nuclear Chemistry and Industrial Materials Recycling, Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Göteborg, Sweden
2
Decontamination and Environmental Management, National School of Chemistry Montpellier, 34090 Montpellier, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 20 August 2018 / Revised: 7 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 13 September 2018
  |  
PDF [4646 KB, uploaded 13 September 2018]
  |  

Abstract

Over the last decade, rare-earth elements (REEs) have become critical in the European Union (EU) in terms of supply risk, and they remain critical to this day. End-of-life electronic scrap (e-scrap) recycling can provide a partial solution to the supply of REEs in the EU. One such product is end-of-life neodymium (NdFeB) magnets, which can be a feasible source of Nd, Dy, and Pr. REEs are normally leached out of NdFeB magnet waste using strong mineral acids, which can have an adverse impact on the environment in case of accidental release. Organic acids can be a solution to this problem due to easier handling, degradability, and less poisonous gas evolution during leaching. However, the literature on leaching NdFeB magnets waste with organic acids is very scarce and poorly investigated. This paper investigates the recovery of Nd, Pr, and Dy from NdFeB magnets waste powder using leaching and solvent extraction. The goal was to determine potential selectivity between the recovery of REEs and other impurities in the material. Citric acid and acetic acid were used as leaching agents, while di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA) was used for preliminary solvent extraction tests. The highest leaching efficiencies were achieved with 1 mol/L citric acid (where almost 100% of the REEs were leached after 24 h) and 1 mol/L acetic acid (where >95% of the REEs were leached). Fe and Co—two major impurities—were co-leached into the solution, and no leaching selectivity was achieved between the impurities and the REEs. The solvent extraction experiments with D2EHPA in Solvent 70 on 1 mol/L leachates of both acetic acid and citric acid showed much higher affinity for Nd than Fe, with better extraction properties observed in acetic acid leachate. The results showed that acetic acid and citric acid are feasible for the recovery of REEs out of NdFeB waste under certain conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: rare earths; neodymium magnets; solvent extraction; leaching; citric acid; acetic acid rare earths; neodymium magnets; solvent extraction; leaching; citric acid; acetic acid
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Gergoric, M.; Ravaux, C.; Steenari, B.-M.; Espegren, F.; Retegan, T. Leaching and Recovery of Rare-Earth Elements from Neodymium Magnet Waste Using Organic Acids. Metals 2018, 8, 721.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Metals EISSN 2075-4701 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top