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Open AccessArticle

Compensation of Vertical Position Error Using a Force–Deflection Model in Friction Stir Spot Welding

by Jinyoung Yoon 1,2, Cheolhee Kim 1,3,* and Sehun Rhee 2
1
Joining Research Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology, Incheon 21999, Korea
2
School of Mechanical Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul 04763, Korea
3
Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Portland State University, Portland, OR 97201, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2018, 8(12), 1049; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8121049
Received: 27 November 2018 / Revised: 7 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 December 2018 / Published: 11 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Friction Stir Welding and Processing in Alloy Manufacturing)
Despite increasing need for friction stir spot welding (FSSW) for high-temperature softening materials, system deflection due to relatively high plunging force remains an obstacle. System deflection results in the vertical position error of a welding tool and insufficient plunge depth. In this study, we used adaptive control to maintain plunge depth, the plunging force was coaxially measured, and the position error was estimated using a force–deflection model. A linear relationship was confirmed between the force and deflection; this relationship is dependent on the stiffness of the welding system while independent of process parameters and base materials. The proposed model was evaluated during the FSSW of an Al 6061-T6 alloy sheet and a dissimilar metal combination of Al 6061-T6 alloy/dual phase (DP) 590 steel. Under varying process parameters, the adaptive control maintained a plunge depth with an error of less than 50 μm. Conventional position control has a maximum error of nearly 300 μm. View Full-Text
Keywords: friction stir spot welding; plunge depth; adaptive control; force–deflection model; high-temperature softening materials; dissimilar metal welding friction stir spot welding; plunge depth; adaptive control; force–deflection model; high-temperature softening materials; dissimilar metal welding
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MDPI and ACS Style

Yoon, J.; Kim, C.; Rhee, S. Compensation of Vertical Position Error Using a Force–Deflection Model in Friction Stir Spot Welding. Metals 2018, 8, 1049.

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