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Thermo-Mechanical Modelling of Wire-Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) of Semi-Finished Products

1
Institute for Machine Tools and Production Processes, Professorship Virtual Production Engineering, Chemnitz University of Technology, Reichenhainer Str. 70, 09126 Chemnitz, Germany
2
Institute of Joining and Assembly, Professorship Welding Engineering, Chemnitz University of Technology, Reichenhainer Str. 70, 09126 Chemnitz, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Metals 2018, 8(12), 1009; https://doi.org/10.3390/met8121009
Received: 23 October 2018 / Revised: 16 November 2018 / Accepted: 24 November 2018 / Published: 1 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Arc-based Additive Manufacturing)
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Abstract

Additive manufacturing processes have been investigated for some years, and are commonly used industrially in the field of plastics for small- and medium-sized series. The use of metallic deposition material has been intensively studied on the laboratory scale, but the numerical prediction is not yet state of the art. This paper examines numerical approaches for predicting temperature fields, distortions, and mechanical properties using the Finite Element (FE) software MSC Marc. For process mapping, the filler materials G4Si1 (1.5130) for steel, and AZ31 for magnesium, were first characterized in terms of thermo-physical and thermo-mechanical properties with process-relevant cast microstructure. These material parameters are necessary for a detailed thermo-mechanical coupled Finite Element Method (FEM). The focus of the investigations was on the numerical analysis of the influence of the wire feed (2.5–5.0 m/min) and the weld path orientation (unidirectional or continuous) on the temperature evolution for multi-layered walls of miscellaneous materials. For the calibration of the numerical model, the real welding experiments were carried out using the gas-metal arc-welding process—cold metal transfer (CMT) technology. A uniform wall geometry can be produced with a continuous welding path, because a more homogeneous temperature distribution results. View Full-Text
Keywords: wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM); multi-pass welding; FEA; MSC Marc; steel G4Si1; magnesium AZ31 wire arc additive manufacturing (WAAM); multi-pass welding; FEA; MSC Marc; steel G4Si1; magnesium AZ31
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Graf, M.; Hälsig, A.; Höfer, K.; Awiszus, B.; Mayr, P. Thermo-Mechanical Modelling of Wire-Arc Additive Manufacturing (WAAM) of Semi-Finished Products. Metals 2018, 8, 1009.

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